Category: stem

TB Drugs and Side Effects for Tuberculosis: [USMLE, MCAT, Biology]

Drugs for TB: What drugs treat tuberculosis TB? In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the main drugs -rifamycin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin – that treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis or TB and provide study aid mnemonics to aid in your USMLE learning.

What is Maladaptive Daydreaming Disorder?

Daydreaming is a common human phenomenon, one that we all experience in our daily lives. Studies show that we actually spend around 47% of our waking time in the dream world. We utilize this important tool to think-out different scenarios, re-visit special times in our lives, imagine new ones, or even just to pass time. Daydreaming is vital to the human experience. But one may wonder, what happens when one daydreams a little too much?

Sleep 101: Brain Activity and Sleep Disorders, Sleep Apnea, Circadium Rhythms, and How to Sleep Better at Night

Sleep and Brain Activity Sleep disorders affect up to 70 million people and cost around $15.9 billion annually. EEG stands for electroencephalography, which was used to examine human brain waves in the 1950s. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia, OSA, Apnea, Narcolepsy. Regulation of Sleep. Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: Circadium Rhythm and Homeostatic System. Tips to sleep better at night.

Primary Essential Hypertension vs Secondary Hypertension: Causes and Health Effects of High Blood Pressure [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about secondary hypertension for USMLE and medicine. Secondary hypertension is defined as high blood pressure (>140/90 or >130/80) caused by an underlying disease, medical condition, or drugs. While primary essential hypertension comprises of the majority of hypertension cases (90%), only 10% of patient cases is secondary hypertension.

Direct Hernia vs Indirect Hernia

Direct vs Indirect Hernia: What is the difference between direct and indirect inguinal hernias? In this easy-to-understand lesson, we explore the differences between direct inguinal hernias and indirect inguinal hernias. Overall, an inguinal hernia is a medical condition, where protrusion or bulge of abdominal contents into the groin area and/or inguinal canal. There are two types of inguinal hernias: 1) direct inguinal hernia and 2) indirect inguinal hernia.

Embryogenesis: Definition, Stages, and Development [MCAT]

Sonic Hedgehog Gene. CNS development and Limb development. In embryology and developmental biology, embryogenesis is the development of an animal or plant embryo, starting with fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. After fertilization, the ovum becomes a diploid zygote. orms forebrain, separates right and left brain, and establishes midline. f there’s a mutation, then we have a whole brain with no separation of right and left, which is bad. This is called holoprosencephaly. Left and right hemispheres fail to separate. There are also facial abnormalities, cleft lip/palate and even severe cyclopia (single eye like a cyclops).

The Rise of Tech: Tech Trends of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has turned our world upside down. From the way we greet each other to the schedule of our daily routines, it’s safe to say that everything that was considered the norm at the beginning of 2020 has completely changed. While most people’s eyes are on health officials, tech giants and start-up companies have been using this time to create new inventions to propel society further – or so they say. Here we will analyze the new products and tech trends that have arisen in the wake of this pandemic, what they do, and if they actually serve to help society.

Vaccines 101: Vaccination, Immune System, and the COVID-19 Vaccine – Benefits and Side Effects

The question of how a vaccination would work to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic is a major concern right now. Everybody has their own perspective on the situation, and in some people’s minds, vaccines do not fit into the equation. Therefore, it’s extremely important to understand what a vaccine’s purpose is, how it is supposed to achieve that purpose, how a vaccine is developed, and its benefits versus side effects before coming to a final conclusion on the subject as it relates to the pandemic. To understand a vaccination’s purpose it is necessary to first understand how a pathogen works. A pathogen is essentially any foreign material (foreign in the sense that it is not a part of the human body), that can cause disease or a malfunction of the body. They spread from surface to surface and person to person.

Biology 101: Microfilaments vs Microtubules in Cell Biology

Microfilaments and microtubules are both important elements of the cytoskeleton, maintaining the structure and integrity of the cell, but there are several differences between microfilaments and microtubules. In this article, we share this information on microfilaments versus microtubules.

Microfilament and Microtubulues are made from different individual subunits. Microfilaments are made from ACTIN, while microtubules are made from TUBULIN.

Cardiology 101 – Atrial Fibrillation (USMLE) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatments

In this quick easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about atrial fibrillation, causes, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for USMLE medicine. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. This means the heart beat has an irregularly irregular rhythm. Symptoms can include fatigue, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), and heart palpitations in the chest. You diagnose atrial fibrillation via EKG. It can be treated with medications or surgically.

Immunology 101: Innate Immunity vs. Adaptive Immunity

Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.

Art in Space

When discussing space art, one can mean at least two different things. The term can refer to art made on Earth that is then sent into outer space, or art produced while in space. Going with the former definition, our exhibits come down to Earth’s closest neighbor in the Solar System and the rest of the cosmos.

Cardiac Arrhythmias: Definition, Types, Symptoms, and Prevention

The heart’s function is to consistently move the blood in the body for the blood to spread nutrients to other body parts or to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients from other respective organs. The heartbeat is a way to understand the pace at which the blood is moving and how quick the heart is pumping itself. A heartbeat changes based on its environment. Running and high-intensity movement causes the heart to increase its number of beats whereas resting may lead to a lower heartbeat for the low amount activity that does not require as much oxygen. Depending on the difficulty and intensity of each activity, the heart accommodates via changing its pace to fit the body’s needs. In certain cases, however, a cardiac arrhythmia occurs and can lead to different cardiac issues that may or may not be harmless. Cardiac arrhythmia has affected millions of people in a multitude of forms. This article explains the basics of this condition such as heart block and bradycardia. The article is solely for educational purposes and not to diagnosis. What is a Cardiac Arrhythmia?

Taxonomy: History, Definition, Classification, and Taxonomy Mnemonic

Cougar. Mountain Lion. Puma. What do these animals all have in common? Believe it or not, they are actually all names for the same animal! Because this feline spans such a large area, different areas call it different names. As you might think, this could get confusing if scientists try to discuss the same animal, so what do they do? They use taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the science and process of organizing organisms into categories and naming them. Every species of animal has a unique taxonomic, or scientific, name. A species is a group of organisms that reproduce among itself and produce offspring. The scientific name is used by scientists all over the world for ease of communication. After all, it is very important to be specific in science. For example, the scientific name of the cougar/mountain lion/puma is Puma concolor. The name cougar/mountain lion/puma refers to the animal’s common name. Organisms can have many common names used by the public, but when scientists are referring to them, they use the scientific name. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Eyes 101: Top 25 Most Common Eye Problems, Diseases, and Disorders

Common eye problems, diseases, and disorders – Quick and easy to learn diagram, definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases. In this article, we explore the top 25 most common eye problems, diseases, and disorders, including diagrams,  definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases. The eye is a small but unique organ of the human body with the ability to visualize a lifetime of events. 

Is COVID-19 Going to Resurge? In the Winter? When Will the COVID-19 Pandemic End?

The novel COVID-19 is leaving astonishing traces of deaths and illnesses as it rapidly encroaches upon our everyday lives. Schools are closed. Unemployment is surging. People experience dreadful losses of their family and friends. Luckily, however, the exponential curve of COVID-19 seems to have flattened within the past few weeks for many of the countries, and some even seem to have downward-sloping trends. So, should we feel relieved and expect the curve to hit 0 soon?

What are Vitamins?: Definition, Functions, and Health Benefits

Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.

An Introduction to Skeletal Muscles: Properties and Physiology

The muscular system allows us to move and do our daily tasks. It also provides heat, stability, and blood flow for our body. There are three main types of muscular tissue: cardiac muscle, which comprises the heart muscle, smooth muscle, which comprises the linings of organs, and skeletal muscle, which are the muscles that help our body move. This article will focus on the physiology of skeletal muscles.