In this quick easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about atrial fibrillation, causes, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for USMLE medicine. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. This means the heart beat has an irregularly irregular rhythm. Symptoms can include fatigue, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), and heart palpitations in the chest. You diagnose atrial fibrillation via EKG. It can be treated with medications or surgically.
Water quenches thirst, is crucial when taking a bath, and is important when cooking. Yet despite the fact that it is all around us and used in our daily lives, there are many facts and health benefits about water that remain unknown to many people.
Petroleum (or oil) and natural gas are widely used sources of fuel. Around the world many transportation, energy, and heating infrastructures depend in large part on one or both of these hydrocarbon-rich fuels, petrochemical products. While in the past it may have seemed inconceivable that people would have to step away from fossil fuels, climate change increasingly necessitates greener alternatives. It is also hard to imagine life without plastics. For many applications, such as in healthcare, there may be no better materials. A future with zero plastic is neither warranted nor desirable, but the threats to various ecosystems are likely to force the development of greener and more sustainable materials.
Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
The heart’s function is to consistently move the blood in the body for the blood to spread nutrients to other body parts or to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients from other respective organs. The heartbeat is a way to understand the pace at which the blood is moving and how quick the heart is pumping itself. A heartbeat changes based on its environment. Running and high-intensity movement causes the heart to increase its number of beats whereas resting may lead to a lower heartbeat for the low amount activity that does not require as much oxygen. Depending on the difficulty and intensity of each activity, the heart accommodates via changing its pace to fit the body’s needs. In certain cases, however, a cardiac arrhythmia occurs and can lead to different cardiac issues that may or may not be harmless. Cardiac arrhythmia has affected millions of people in a multitude of forms. This article explains the basics of this condition such as heart block and bradycardia. The article is solely for educational purposes and not to diagnosis. What is a Cardiac Arrhythmia?
Cougar. Mountain Lion. Puma. What do these animals all have in common? Believe it or not, they are actually all names for the same animal! Because this feline spans such a large area, different areas call it different names. As you might think, this could get confusing if scientists try to discuss the same animal, so what do they do? They use taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the science and process of organizing organisms into categories and naming them. Every species of animal has a unique taxonomic, or scientific, name. A species is a group of organisms that reproduce among itself and produce offspring. The scientific name is used by scientists all over the world for ease of communication. After all, it is very important to be specific in science. For example, the scientific name of the cougar/mountain lion/puma is Puma concolor. The name cougar/mountain lion/puma refers to the animal’s common name. Organisms can have many common names used by the public, but when scientists are referring to them, they use the scientific name. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Climate change affects the entirety of the earth’s surface, and nowhere more so than our oceans. While our seas cover about two-thirds of the earth’s surface they absorb over ninety percent of the additional heat attributable to global warming. Both land masses and bodies of water absorb and reflect solar radiation that rebounds off of the greenhouse gases trapped in our atmosphere, but the latter is generally more absorptive and holds on to heat longer due to differences in physical properties. This of course has led to increases in global seawater temperatures, which has and continues to endanger several aquatic species. This article will examine one of those species and go over human efforts to preserve it.
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
Ever wondered how plants grow or survive? In this educational lesson, we learn all about plant hormones, including gibberellin, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, and abscisic acid.
For the average person, washing their hair every day or every few days is a matter of hygienic preference rather than necessity. Unless their work or pastime brings them in contact with dirt or involves physical exertion, it is unlikely that their hair would go from being clean to truly dirty in the span of twenty-four hours.
So, what is the true science behind our “dirty” hair and the ingredients in our shampoo?
When does a baby say its first words, Mama and Dada? When does a baby learn to stand up and walk on its own? Is it normal for an infant to develop stranger anxiety at 9 months? In this quick and easy-to-understand lesson, we review the infant developmental milestones at 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. This lesson includes high-yield USMLE quick take-home points, high yield summaries, and practice test questions/answers on infant developmental milestones.
You probably go to sleep most – if not all – nights. You probably have dreamt during many of these nights. And you might feel rested every time you go to sleep. Yet did you know about the complex mental processes that happen every time we go to sleep?
Circulatory System: Heart Structures and Functions; Blood flows through the heart in the following order: body –>inferior/superior vena cava –> right atrium –> tricuspid valve –> right ventricle –> pulmonary arteries –> lungs –> pulmonary veins –> left atrium –> mitral valve –> left ventricle –> aortic valve –> aorta –> body…
Have you ever had the experience of suddenly hating the food you once loved? Well, it turns out there is a term for it: conditioned taste aversion. Conditioned taste aversion is a type of classical conditioning in which a person develops a strong resistance toward one specific food after experiencing sickness, nausea, or any type of negative emotion.
Common eye problems, diseases, and disorders – Quick and easy to learn diagram, definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases
In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the shoulder muscles responsible for abducting the shoulder, the anatomy, the degrees of arm abduction for each shoulder muscle, and the nerves that innervate the shoulder abduction muscles.
In this lesson, we explain about the biochemistry of glucose transporters GLUT and SGLT, their functions, and differences. Biochemistry, MCAT, and USMLE
Best Motivational Quotes: Don’t be pushed around by the fears in your mind. Be led by the dreams in your heart. – Roy T. Bennet
What is the difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus? USMLE protein-energy malnutrition diseases; we explain the differences, including causes, symptoms, comparative medical charts.
The novel COVID-19 is leaving astonishing traces of deaths and illnesses as it rapidly encroaches upon our everyday lives. Schools are closed. Unemployment is surging. People experience dreadful losses of their family and friends. Luckily, however, the exponential curve of COVID-19 seems to have flattened within the past few weeks for many of the countries, and some even seem to have downward-sloping trends. So, should we feel relieved and expect the curve to hit 0 soon?
16 MBTI Personalities: The INTJ Personality, Love and Relationships; INTJ personality type and advice, signs of attraction, and how to attract INTJs tips.
Circulatory system – order of blood flow through the heart; Step by step Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart; Quick and easy to learn in 14 steps
The basics of rewilding (at least in North America) are the Three C’s: Cores, Corridors, and Carnivores. Rewilding was developed in the 1990’s as a new approach to ecological restoration. Proponents have characterized it as being active rather than reactive. What this means is that instead of viewing conservation as stemming a tide or becoming shepherds to ever-declining animal populations, rewilding is focused on restoring the equilibrium of ecological systems. This is accomplished through a variety of methods that are grouped together under the Three C’s.
Phosphorus Part 2: Health Risks and Disadvantages. Part 1 of this article described the uses and advantages of the element phosphorus. However, there are also various health risks that come with using phosphorus in our lives.
Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.