Retroviruses are a class of viruses that not only infect host cells but also integrate their genetic material into the host genome, establishing a permanent infection that cannot be cured. The most common retrovirus is the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV, which targets and destroys helper T-cells.
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Sleep 101: Brain Activity and Sleep Disorders, Sleep Apnea, Circadium Rhythms, and How to Sleep Better at Night
Sleep and Brain Activity Sleep disorders affect up to 70 million people and cost around $15.9 billion annually. EEG stands for electroencephalography, which was used to examine human brain waves in the 1950s. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia, OSA, Apnea, Narcolepsy. Regulation of Sleep. Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: Circadium Rhythm and Homeostatic System. Tips to sleep better at night.
Primary Essential Hypertension vs Secondary Hypertension: Causes and Health Effects of High Blood Pressure [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]
In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about secondary hypertension for USMLE and medicine. Secondary hypertension is defined as high blood pressure (>140/90 or >130/80) caused by an underlying disease, medical condition, or drugs. While primary essential hypertension comprises of the majority of hypertension cases (90%), only 10% of patient cases is secondary hypertension.
In this quick, easy lesson, we learn about hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, for USMLE and medicine. Hypertension is defined numerically as >140/90 and more recently as >130/80. Primary Hypertension vs Secondary Hypertension. Hypertension Effects. Hypertensive Urgency vs Hypertensive Emergency.
Direct vs Indirect Hernia: What is the difference between direct and indirect inguinal hernias? In this easy-to-understand lesson, we explore the differences between direct inguinal hernias and indirect inguinal hernias. Overall, an inguinal hernia is a medical condition, where protrusion or bulge of abdominal contents into the groin area and/or inguinal canal. There are two types of inguinal hernias: 1) direct inguinal hernia and 2) indirect inguinal hernia.
Sonic Hedgehog Gene. CNS development and Limb development. In embryology and developmental biology, embryogenesis is the development of an animal or plant embryo, starting with fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. After fertilization, the ovum becomes a diploid zygote. orms forebrain, separates right and left brain, and establishes midline. f there’s a mutation, then we have a whole brain with no separation of right and left, which is bad. This is called holoprosencephaly. Left and right hemispheres fail to separate. There are also facial abnormalities, cleft lip/palate and even severe cyclopia (single eye like a cyclops).
Aging occurs in many different ways and is a natural process of life. In this article, we delve into the definition, neurobiology and physiology of the aging process as well as tips for maximizing health and aging well.
Psychology 101 and the Brain: Stress – Definition, Symptoms, and Health Effects of the Fight-or-Flight Response
The “fight or flight” response is in response to impending danger. For example, the stress responses kicks in when seeing a snake slithering towards you or running away from a bear in the woods. Homeostasis is the normal equilibrium of body function, so stress can be induced by belief that homeostasis might be interrupted. In this guide, we share the effects of stress on the human body system, psychology, immune system, and long-term health effects of chronic stress.
2021 AP English Exam – Literature 101: Literary and Poetry Terms Vocabulary Study Guide – 125 Most Common Literary Terms and Definitions
In this guide, we share 125 most common literary and poetry terms along with their definitions based on the greatest works of Literature and Poems in preparation for the AP English Exam. From dynamic characters and tragedy to comedy and alliteration, we explore the wide range of terminology and their definitions studied in high schools, colleges, and universities.
Detailed Timeline Review For Events in Romeo and Juliet, including quote analysis and page references: Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. And check out our free Romeo and Juliet Full Literature Study Guide on the timeline of events here!
Microfilaments and microtubules are both important elements of the cytoskeleton, maintaining the structure and integrity of the cell, but there are several differences between microfilaments and microtubules. In this article, we share this information on microfilaments versus microtubules.
Microfilament and Microtubulues are made from different individual subunits. Microfilaments are made from ACTIN, while microtubules are made from TUBULIN.
In this quick easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about atrial fibrillation, causes, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for USMLE medicine. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. This means the heart beat has an irregularly irregular rhythm. Symptoms can include fatigue, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), and heart palpitations in the chest. You diagnose atrial fibrillation via EKG. It can be treated with medications or surgically.
Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
When does a baby say its first words, Mama and Dada? When does a baby learn to stand up and walk on its own? Is it normal for an infant to develop stranger anxiety at 9 months? In this quick and easy-to-understand lesson, we review the infant developmental milestones at 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. This lesson includes high-yield USMLE quick take-home points, high yield summaries, and practice test questions/answers on infant developmental milestones.
In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the shoulder muscles responsible for abducting the shoulder, the anatomy, the degrees of arm abduction for each shoulder muscle, and the nerves that innervate the shoulder abduction muscles.
In this lesson, we explain about the biochemistry of glucose transporters GLUT and SGLT, their functions, and differences. Biochemistry, MCAT, and USMLE
Best Motivational Quotes: Don’t be pushed around by the fears in your mind. Be led by the dreams in your heart. – Roy T. Bennet
What is the difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus? USMLE protein-energy malnutrition diseases; we explain the differences, including causes, symptoms, comparative medical charts.
We have collected a list of some of our top 15 favorite alternative websites similar to and like Sparknotes: Top Websites Similar to Sparknotes for literature help, study guides, etc
Circulatory system – order of blood flow through the heart; Step by step Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart; Quick and easy to learn in 14 steps
In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about the kidney’s development and renal embryology in 3 stages. Mnemonics & Kidney Embryology Quiz Included!
Ladies and gentlemen, hop onto our roller coaster adventure and buckle in as we review the latest Alex Rider book Nightshade. We’re in for a wild ride.
Our British teenage spy Alex Rider strikes back again in this new action-packed thriller, Nightshade. Nightshade is the latest YA book in the Alex Rider series by author Anthony Horowitz and was just recently released in bookstores and Amazon on Tuesday, April 7, 2020.
Alex Rider Nightshade Book Review and Alex Rider Nightshade Plot
What is the difference between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea? In this lesson, we learn about sleep apnea, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and differentiate between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea. USMLE
Pneumothorax also known as collapsed lung occurs when air is trapped in the pleural space. Trapped air causes a loss of negative pressure in the pleural cavity, reduces surface tension, and induces the lungs to collapse. There are 3 types of Pneumothorax or collapsed lungs: 1) Spontaneous 2) Traumatic, and 3) Tension Pneumothorax.
In this lesson, we learn the different types of pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and important terminology. USMLE