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Hi there, my friends! In this lesson, we explore aortic dissection which is a serious medical condition characterized by the tearing of the inner layer of the aortic wall, resulting in the formation of a false channel for blood flow. It is important to differentiate between Stanford type A and Stanford type B aortic dissections as they have different clinical presentations and treatment approaches. Let’s compare and contrast these two types in terms of anatomy, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Hey there, my friends! In this lesson, we explore heart failure, a medical condition where the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. There are two types of heart failure: systolic and diastolic. Systolic heart failure is a condition where the heart muscles do not contract as forcefully as they should during each heartbeat. Diastolic heart failure is a condition where the heart muscles do not relax as they should during each heartbeat.
Hi there, my friends! In this lesson, we explore aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation as two common heart conditions that affect the aortic valve, which controls blood flow from the left ventricle to the rest of the body. While both conditions involve the aortic valve, they differ in their underlying causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Hello, my friends! In this lesson, we explore the four types of heart block. Heart block, also known as atrioventricular (AV) block, is a condition where there is a disruption in the electrical signals between the atria and ventricles of the heart. This can lead to a slower or irregular heartbeat, which can cause various symptoms and complications. There are four types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree type 1 (Wenckebach), second-degree type 2 (Mobitz II), and third-degree (complete) heart block. In this essay, we will compare and contrast the four types of heart block, including their ECG patterns, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
What is Wilson disease? Do not fret, young medical student. In this lesson, we learn about Wilson disease and include high-yield medical school information, such as causes, pathology, diagnosis, and treatments. Test yourself with our high-yield question vignettes with answers on Wilson Disease.
Are you a medical student interested in pain medicine and pain management? Or, perhaps, want to learn more about the pharmacology or interventional procedures of pain medicine? Then, you’ve come to the right place to learn about the basics of pain management! In this succinct, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about pain medicine, pain management for both acute and chronic pain, as well as pharmacology and interventional pain management. All on aboard!
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are two chronic liver diseases that affect the bile ducts, which are responsible for carrying bile from the liver to the small intestine. While they have some similarities, they are distinct conditions with different causes and treatments. In this quick lesson, we will review the differences and similarities of primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PBC) vs (PSC), including a summary table.
Happy Holidays and Happy New Year everyone! We wish you a happy, healthy, and successful new year. We are very thankful for everyone, each and every one of our readers and supporters. Thank you so much for joining in our journey of lifelong learning and supporting global health and education around the world. To this date, over 2,293,580 lifelong leaners from around the world have visited our open-access global education website, including you! Dedicated to global education and lifelong learning, Moosmosis is an international youth organization that promotes lifelong learning in the arts and sciences and aspires to close the gap of educational disparities through open-access education. By creating and publishing original free articles, lessons, and unique e-learning games in both the humanities and sciences, Moosmosis provides diverse learning tools, open to all lifelong learners around the world. Our Moosmosis site is run 100% by volunteers from around the world. Thank you again for your support everyone, and have a Happy Holidays and happy New Year! 😀 Feel free to also check out the incredible e-learning games and popular articles below made by our Moosmosis members and lifelong learners! We couldn’t have done this without the incredible kindness of all our supporters from around the world. Thank you so much again for your compassion and support for our Moosmosis’s Mission for Global Health & Education for lifelong learners around the world. Please subscribe and share! Happy Holidays and Happy New Year everyone!!
The use of AI such as ChatGPT, a variant of the language model GPT developed by OpenAI, to assist students in writing essays raises a number of ethical concerns. On the one hand, AI-assisted writing tools have the potential to significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the writing process for students, particularly those who may struggle with language or writing skills. However, there are also valid concerns about the potential negative impacts of such tools on the development of writing skills, originality, and intellectual property, as well as issues of fairness and access. In this essay, we will explore the advantages and disadvantages of using ChatGPT for essay writing, and consider how we might regulate the use of AI in education in the future.
Happy Thanksgiving everyone! We are very thankful for everyone, each and every one of our readers and supporters. Thank you so much for joining in our journey of lifelong learning and supporting global health and education around the world. To this date, over 2,270,000 lifelong leaners from around the world have visited our open-access global education website, including you! Dedicated to global education and lifelong learning, Moosmosis is an international youth organization that promotes lifelong learning in the arts and sciences and aspires to close the gap of educational disparities through open-access education. By creating and publishing original free lessons and unique e-learning games in both the humanities and sciences, Moosmosis provides diverse learning tools, open to all lifelong learners around the world. Our Moosmosis site is run 100% by volunteers from around the world. Thank you again for your support everyone, and have a Happy Thanksgiving! 😀 Feel free to also check out the incredible e-learning games and popular articles below made by our Moosmosis members and lifelong learners! We couldn’t have done this without the incredible kindness of all our supporters from around the world. Thank you so much again for your compassion and support for our Moosmosis’s Mission for Global Health & Education for lifelong learners around the world. Please subscribe and share! Happy Thanksgiving!!
In this easy-to-understand lesson, we summarize important notes from Pathoma’s Chapter 1. Cell Adaption and Injury. This lesson also includes main summary, note points, practice exam/test questions, and answers for fellow medical school students learning pathology. Happy learning!
Learning anatomy in medical school is hard, but we can make it easy. Presenting free practice test and practice exam questions and answers for Medical Anatomy. Test your knowledge on medical school anatomy with our free, open-access practice tests.
Located in Mexico, the Aztecs built a cultured civilization with unique kinds of food eaten daily for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. In this easy lesson, we explain what kinds of food the Aztecs ate every day, including specialty cuisines according to different social classes.
In this article, we discuss Management for Coronary Artery Disease and Differentiating between Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI. We share a table for similarities and differences and flow chart for management of coronary artery disease. We cover stress tests and medications for coronary artery disease. Enjoy!
In this study guide, we review anemia, types of anemia, formulas, vocabulary, heme breakdown, and anemia of chronic diseases.
A huge thank you to all the teachers around the world! May 3 is Teacher Appreciation Day, also known as National Teachers Day, and Teacher Appreciation Week lasts from May 2 – May 6. Teachers are invaluable to our communities. They nurture the growth of our students, both young and old, and inspire us to succeed with the gift of learning and education.
B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.
In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.
An international conflict during the 1910’s, World War 1, was contributed by not one factor but numerous factors that led to its extensive atrocity. The aggressive rise and continuation of nationalism throughout countries greatly contributed to the start and four-year length of the war. In addition, the heightened race of militarism and its advanced trench warfare also contributed to the massive scale of the war, including the appalling losses of men as well as the elongated duration. Therefore, both the rise of nationalism, the patriotic feelings of countries’ people to fight, and the pursuit of militarism, advancements of armies, weaponry, and warfare style, played key roles in the contribution of the international conflict World War 1.
Digoxin is a drug that treats heart arrhythmias, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and heart failure. In this succinct educational lesson, we learn about how digoxin works in treating heart arrhythmias and heart failure, digoxin toxicity and common side effects, and treatment for digoxin toxicity. We also have a mini quiz at the end, so you can test your knowledge on the pharmacology of digoxin.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the joints of hands, feet, knees, etc. In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the standard medical treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the USMLE immunology level, including DMARDS (synthetics and biologics), NSAIDS, and glucocorticoids.
There are two types of chemoreceptors that help control and regulate our respiratory rate: 1) central chemoreceptors and 2) peripheral chemoreceptors. Both central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors send signals to the main respiratory center in the brain that unconsciously tells our bodies to increase or reduce pulmonary ventilation. In this lesson, we describe the differences and similarities of central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors for the pulmonary system.
Drugs for TB: What drugs treat tuberculosis TB? In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the main drugs -rifamycin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin – that treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis or TB and provide study aid mnemonics to aid in your USMLE learning.
Retroviruses are a class of viruses that not only infect host cells but also integrate their genetic material into the host genome, establishing a permanent infection that cannot be cured. The most common retrovirus is the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV, which targets and destroys helper T-cells.
Sleep and Brain Activity Sleep disorders affect up to 70 million people and cost around $15.9 billion annually. EEG stands for electroencephalography, which was used to examine human brain waves in the 1950s. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia, OSA, Apnea, Narcolepsy. Regulation of Sleep. Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: Circadium Rhythm and Homeostatic System. Tips to sleep better at night.