Category: education

World History: What Kind of Food Did the Aztecs Eat?

Located in Mexico, the Aztecs built a cultured civilization with unique kinds of food eaten daily for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. In this easy lesson, we explain what kinds of food the Aztecs ate every day, including specialty cuisines according to different social classes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuronal Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Mechanism of Action, and Neuroplasticity [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuronal Synapses, Structure of Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Neurotransmitter Mechanism of Action, Release, Removal, and Neuroplasticity.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Capacitance, & Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Axon Capacitance, Action Potential Patterns, and Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis .

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neurotransmitter Anatomy, Glutamate vs Acetylcholine vs Histamine vs Norepinephrine vs Dopamine vs Serotonin, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include neurotransmitter anatomy, glutamate, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Anatomy, Cerebrum vs Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Subcortical Cortex, Cerebral Cortex [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the nervous system anatomy, cerebellum, brain stem, subcortical cortex, cerebral cortex, and cerebrum. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Autonomic Nervous System, Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous System, Gray and White Matter, Upper Motor Neurons, and Somatosensory Tract [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system, gray and white matter, upper motor neurons, and somatosensory tract.

History of Tea and Modern Afghan Tea Culture

When the term tea culture comes up, people usually think of places like Japan, China, or England, though perhaps Afghanistan deserves to be in this lineup too. While not as well known as those already mentioned, Afghanistan’s tea culture is a venerable one that dates back centuries. As with many ancient cultural artifacts, tea came to Afghanistan by way of the Silk Road, likely via merchants going to or from China. This tradition continues to this day, as while the country does grow some of its own tea, the majority of Afghanistan’s tea consumption relies on imports from China and Pakistan.

Literary Analysis: An Examination of Free Will Through Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange

Fundamental conversations, on freedom and self-determination, greatly influenced Anthony Burgess’ choice of immoral characterization and dramatic plot development in his 1962 dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange, dealing with what it means to be able to make choices in a restrictive society and dabbling in themes of freedom and bondage. 

Modern-day democracies across the globe continue to thrive as world powers as a result of the choices made by its citizens. However, when governments suppress the voice of the people, as seen in A Clockwork Orange’s totalitarian government, growth is stunted and the government remains static. Similarly, philosophers have debated whether individuals have free will and the extent to which this self-sufficiency extends. Alvin Plantinga,  an analytic professor at the University of Notre Dame describes the ability to choose as, “Now, God can create free creatures, but he can’t cause or determine them to do only what is right. For if he does so, then they aren’t significantly free after all; they do not do what is right freely.” (Plantinga).  Plantinga’s attention towards the ability to make choices rather than rely on foreordained outcomes reveals the very hypocrisy Burgess aims to reveal through his novel, a hypocrisy centered on the notion that good can’t live without the choice to do otherwise. Alex, who is the antihero of the novel, questions the government which strives to dictate him, wondering, “ What does God want? Does God want goodness or the choice of goodness? Is a man who chooses the bad perhaps in some way better than a man who has the good imposed upon him?” (Burgess). Alex’s internal line of questioning and later entrapment by the restrictive government reveals the evident truth of decision making. Without choice, then there is no moral guideline to follow and, essentially, no discernment from right and wrong. To state that the ability to make a choice through self-autonomy is an act of hypocrisy in and of itself as the individual making such a  claim would be referring to their own volition. For example, Jans Jonas, a German philosopher reveals an anecdote about a group of physiologists such as Ernst Brucke and Emil du Bois-Reymond who promised early in their careers, “Brucke and I pledged a solemn oath to put into effect this truth: ‘that no other forces are at work in the organism except chemical-physical ones’” (Jones). Contrary to their statement, their eventual rise to fame is an indicator of the impact personal actions have on an individual. As Seifert, an Austrian philosopher explains,

Calculus: Infinite Limits vs Limits at Infinity with Explanations, Practice Questions, and Answers [AP Calculus, Calculus 101, Math]

In this article, Infinite limits are limits that evaluate to infinity. You can, however, have limits that are evaluated at infinity or have an evaluated value of infinity. While infinity is a strange concept, we can use it to determine the behavior of functions. This leads us to the discussion of infinite limits and limits at infinity.

Calculus: Limits vs Continuity with Explanations, Practice Questions, and Answers [AP Calculus, Calculus 101, Math]

In the last two articles, we talked about limits and their application in determining the continuity of a function. Here, we will apply those skills to few practice questions. Attempt the problems on your own at first; however, if you get stuck, the solution to each problem is just below it. These problems vaguely range from easy to hard. Enjoy!

Calculus: Limits with Explanations, Practice Questions, and Answers [AP Calculus, Calculus 101, Math]

In this chapter, we will introduce the first big idea in AP Calculus: Limits and Continuity. This a topic that is included in both the AB and BC Calculus courses. Even if your course hasn’t started yet, a good way to prepare yourself for it is to study limits, as they are generally easy to grasp. This will give you a head start on (most likely) the first topic you will learn in your AP calculus course, and can inhibit you from falling behind.

Psychology 101: The Stanford Prison Experiment

What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Philip Zimbardo, a psychologist and a professor at Stanford University posed the same exact question in 1971, thereby leading to what is known as The Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE). The experiment was originally created to uncover the truth about human nature, a more in-depth look on what our true ambitions were, what really drove us. Zimbardo began by choosing 24 volunteers, making 12 of them “guards” and the other 12 “prisoners”.  They were taken to a prison simulation, a fabricated illusion to make the volunteers feel as if they were actually in prison. He began by  giving the guards ultimate power and left the prisoners vulnerable. This evidently led to a distinction of power between the two groups. 45 years later, people still ponder the  question that drove the experiment to its end. Was this study ethically right?  The Stanford Prison Experiment was not ethically right, it stripped volunteers of emotion temporarily, forcing them to turn against each other and was physically harmful to the majority of the participants. 

Top 15 Activities to do During Quarantine

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have been forced to quarantine themselves in their homes. Although countries are starting to open and people are exiting quarantine, social distancing is still common  and previously planned summer activities such as trips, internships and summer jobs have been postponed or cancelled. With summer having arrived, students will no longer be distracted by their classes. This raises the question, what can we do over a quarantined summer?

Biology 101: Gel Electrophoresis

In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.

Chemistry 101: At Home Awesome Chemistry Experiments

Chemical reactions happen around us all the time. These reactions occur when we cook or bake and even in our bodies, like when we breathe. Everyday objects are able to react and cause incredible reactions. Here are some easy science experiments you can create using things you can find around the house. Make sure you act safely during the experiment and have fun!

History 101: What Are The 4 Causes of World War 1?

An international conflict during the 1910’s, World War 1, was contributed by not one factor but numerous factors that led to its extensive atrocity. The aggressive rise and continuation of nationalism throughout countries greatly contributed to the start and four-year length of the war. In addition, the heightened race of militarism and its advanced trench warfare also contributed to the massive scale of the war, including the appalling losses of men as well as the elongated duration. Therefore, both the rise of nationalism, the patriotic feelings of countries’ people to fight, and the pursuit of militarism, advancements of armies, weaponry, and warfare style, played key roles in the contribution of the international conflict World War 1.

Working out …for your brain? – The Neuroscience and Benefits of Playing An Instrument

Whether it’s a violin or a harmonica, learning to play an instrument takes time and effort to “perfect.” Musicians put hours and hours of hard work to perform in concerts, participate in competitions, or even just practice for fun at home. It can be frustrating to play the same piece hundreds and hundreds of times, especially if you still can’t get one section down. However, all of these hours of practicing actually do more than just putting on a perfect performance or impressing your family; playing an instrument can help your physical and mental state. 

Immunology: Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis – NSAIDs vs DMARDs vs Glucocorticoids [Biology, Medicine, MCAT, USMLE]

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the joints of hands, feet, knees, etc. In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the standard medical treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the USMLE immunology level, including DMARDS (synthetics and biologics), NSAIDS, and glucocorticoids.