Category: medicine

Cardiology 101 – Atrial Fibrillation (USMLE) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatments

In this quick easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about atrial fibrillation, causes, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for USMLE medicine. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. This means the heart beat has an irregularly irregular rhythm. Symptoms can include fatigue, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), and heart palpitations in the chest. You diagnose atrial fibrillation via EKG. It can be treated with medications or surgically.

Immunology 101: Innate Immunity vs. Adaptive Immunity

Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.

Cardiac Arrhythmias: Definition, Types, Symptoms, and Prevention

The heart’s function is to consistently move the blood in the body for the blood to spread nutrients to other body parts or to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients from other respective organs. The heartbeat is a way to understand the pace at which the blood is moving and how quick the heart is pumping itself. A heartbeat changes based on its environment. Running and high-intensity movement causes the heart to increase its number of beats whereas resting may lead to a lower heartbeat for the low amount activity that does not require as much oxygen. Depending on the difficulty and intensity of each activity, the heart accommodates via changing its pace to fit the body’s needs. In certain cases, however, a cardiac arrhythmia occurs and can lead to different cardiac issues that may or may not be harmless. Cardiac arrhythmia has affected millions of people in a multitude of forms. This article explains the basics of this condition such as heart block and bradycardia. The article is solely for educational purposes and not to diagnosis. What is a Cardiac Arrhythmia?

Taxonomy: History, Definition, Classification, and Taxonomy Mnemonic

Cougar. Mountain Lion. Puma. What do these animals all have in common? Believe it or not, they are actually all names for the same animal! Because this feline spans such a large area, different areas call it different names. As you might think, this could get confusing if scientists try to discuss the same animal, so what do they do? They use taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the science and process of organizing organisms into categories and naming them. Every species of animal has a unique taxonomic, or scientific, name. A species is a group of organisms that reproduce among itself and produce offspring. The scientific name is used by scientists all over the world for ease of communication. After all, it is very important to be specific in science. For example, the scientific name of the cougar/mountain lion/puma is Puma concolor. The name cougar/mountain lion/puma refers to the animal’s common name. Organisms can have many common names used by the public, but when scientists are referring to them, they use the scientific name. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Infant Developmental Milestones: High-Yield USMLE Points

When does a baby say its first words, Mama and Dada? When does a baby learn to stand up and walk on its own? Is it normal for an infant to develop stranger anxiety at 9 months? In this quick and easy-to-understand lesson, we review the infant developmental milestones at 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. This lesson includes high-yield USMLE quick take-home points, high yield summaries, and practice test questions/answers on infant developmental milestones.

Debunking the Middle Ages

One way of looking at history is in terms of progress. Many historians and fans of the subject laud Rome for its advances in military organization, infrastructure, and civics. Similar adulation is often heaped upon the Renaissance for the strides made in philosophy, arts, and sciences during that period, which in turn set the stage for the Age of Enlightenment. But what of the time between shining antiquity and the rekindling that was the Renaissance? lternately called the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages, and the Medieval Ages, the time period from roughly the 5th century to the 15th century is usually framed in the West as its own era of history.

Is COVID-19 Going to Resurge? In the Winter? When Will the COVID-19 Pandemic End?

The novel COVID-19 is leaving astonishing traces of deaths and illnesses as it rapidly encroaches upon our everyday lives. Schools are closed. Unemployment is surging. People experience dreadful losses of their family and friends. Luckily, however, the exponential curve of COVID-19 seems to have flattened within the past few weeks for many of the countries, and some even seem to have downward-sloping trends. So, should we feel relieved and expect the curve to hit 0 soon?

What are Vitamins?: Definition, Functions, and Health Benefits

Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.

An Introduction to Skeletal Muscles: Properties and Physiology

The muscular system allows us to move and do our daily tasks. It also provides heat, stability, and blood flow for our body. There are three main types of muscular tissue: cardiac muscle, which comprises the heart muscle, smooth muscle, which comprises the linings of organs, and skeletal muscle, which are the muscles that help our body move. This article will focus on the physiology of skeletal muscles.

An Overview of Shorthand: History and Types of Shorthand

Shorthand is the use of abbreviated spellings and or simplified symbols to record information in a quicker, more compact form. The opposite of this is longhand, which generally uses either block lettering or a cursive script. While it takes longer to fully write something out in longhand, all or most of those fluent in a given language will understand what is written down, as opposed to shorthand, which requires special training. In light of modern recording and word processing technologies, the decline in shorthand’s use seems inevitable, with newer inventions allowing those who only known longhand to reap the benefits of shorthand. And yet several shorthand systems thrive in a few niche industries. To fully appreciate shorthand and its resilience, one must go back to its origins.

The Truth Behind Mental Illness

Mental illness has long remained a topic that many seem to be clueless about and one that has been stigmatized and stereotyped.

Learn about the truth about mental illness, the history of its treatment, and how we can help break the taboo about mental illness and promote mental health for ourselves and others.

COVID-19 Pandemic: What does isolation do to the brain?

Does being alone at home make a person go insane? After weeks of social distancing because of COVID-19, people locked up in their homes may be getting bored and restless. Attending school, going out to eat, hanging out with friends — parts of their lives that are normal — are no longer possible. What is the science behind the human’s social brain, and what does isolation do to the brain?

How Effective Is Hydroxychloroquine Against COVID-19?

In March 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump touted hydroxychloroquine as an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mr. Trump highlighted the drug cocktail of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as “one of the biggest game changers in the history of medicine.”1 But how effective is hydroxychloroquine in combating COVID-19 in actuality?

In this article, we learn about hydroxychloroquine a potential drug treatment for COVID-19 and evaluate its scientific efficacy.

Biology Through the Lens of Fish Odor Syndrome (Trimethylaminuria)

Help, I smell like fish! Is this even possible?

Body odor is a fact of life. For many, this is a simple fix either through some deodorant or a quick shower, but for some unlucky few, a fishy odor always remain. This is none other than Fish Odor Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder also known as Trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Learn more about the biology behind Fish Odor Syndrome, the FMO3 gene, cures and treatments.