Cougar. Mountain Lion. Puma. What do these animals all have in common? Believe it or not, they are actually all names for the same animal! Because this feline spans such a large area, different areas call it different names. As you might think, this could get confusing if scientists try to discuss the same animal, so what do they do? They use taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the science and process of organizing organisms into categories and naming them. Every species of animal has a unique taxonomic, or scientific, name. A species is a group of organisms that reproduce among itself and produce offspring. The scientific name is used by scientists all over the world for ease of communication. After all, it is very important to be specific in science. For example, the scientific name of the cougar/mountain lion/puma is Puma concolor. The name cougar/mountain lion/puma refers to the animal’s common name. Organisms can have many common names used by the public, but when scientists are referring to them, they use the scientific name. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
When does a baby say its first words, Mama and Dada? When does a baby learn to stand up and walk on its own? Is it normal for an infant to develop stranger anxiety at 9 months? In this quick and easy-to-understand lesson, we review the infant developmental milestones at 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. This lesson includes high-yield USMLE quick take-home points, high yield summaries, and practice test questions/answers on infant developmental milestones.
You probably go to sleep most – if not all – nights. You probably have dreamt during many of these nights. And you might feel rested every time you go to sleep. Yet did you know about the complex mental processes that happen every time we go to sleep?
Have you ever had the experience of suddenly hating the food you once loved? Well, it turns out there is a term for it: conditioned taste aversion. Conditioned taste aversion is a type of classical conditioning in which a person develops a strong resistance toward one specific food after experiencing sickness, nausea, or any type of negative emotion.
One way of looking at history is in terms of progress. Many historians and fans of the subject laud Rome for its advances in military organization, infrastructure, and civics. Similar adulation is often heaped upon the Renaissance for the strides made in philosophy, arts, and sciences during that period, which in turn set the stage for the Age of Enlightenment. But what of the time between shining antiquity and the rekindling that was the Renaissance? lternately called the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages, and the Medieval Ages, the time period from roughly the 5th century to the 15th century is usually framed in the West as its own era of history.
Common eye problems, diseases, and disorders – Quick and easy to learn diagram, definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases
In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the shoulder muscles responsible for abducting the shoulder, the anatomy, the degrees of arm abduction for each shoulder muscle, and the nerves that innervate the shoulder abduction muscles.
What is the difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus? USMLE protein-energy malnutrition diseases; we explain the differences, including causes, symptoms, comparative medical charts.
Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.
The muscular system allows us to move and do our daily tasks. It also provides heat, stability, and blood flow for our body. There are three main types of muscular tissue: cardiac muscle, which comprises the heart muscle, smooth muscle, which comprises the linings of organs, and skeletal muscle, which are the muscles that help our body move. This article will focus on the physiology of skeletal muscles.
Shorthand is the use of abbreviated spellings and or simplified symbols to record information in a quicker, more compact form. The opposite of this is longhand, which generally uses either block lettering or a cursive script. While it takes longer to fully write something out in longhand, all or most of those fluent in a given language will understand what is written down, as opposed to shorthand, which requires special training. In light of modern recording and word processing technologies, the decline in shorthand’s use seems inevitable, with newer inventions allowing those who only known longhand to reap the benefits of shorthand. And yet several shorthand systems thrive in a few niche industries. To fully appreciate shorthand and its resilience, one must go back to its origins.
In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about the kidney’s development and renal embryology in 3 stages. Mnemonics & Kidney Embryology Quiz Included!
Children infected by COVID-19 are experiencing mysterious symptoms. This condition is known as MIS-C, but what is MIS-C? And how is it related to COVID-19?
Mental illness has long remained a topic that many seem to be clueless about and one that has been stigmatized and stereotyped.
Learn about the truth about mental illness, the history of its treatment, and how we can help break the taboo about mental illness and promote mental health for ourselves and others.
Does being alone at home make a person go insane? After weeks of social distancing because of COVID-19, people locked up in their homes may be getting bored and restless. Attending school, going out to eat, hanging out with friends — parts of their lives that are normal — are no longer possible. What is the science behind the human’s social brain, and what does isolation do to the brain?
In March 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump touted hydroxychloroquine as an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mr. Trump highlighted the drug cocktail of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as “one of the biggest game changers in the history of medicine.”1 But how effective is hydroxychloroquine in combating COVID-19 in actuality?
In this article, we learn about hydroxychloroquine a potential drug treatment for COVID-19 and evaluate its scientific efficacy.
Help, I smell like fish! Is this even possible?
Body odor is a fact of life. For many, this is a simple fix either through some deodorant or a quick shower, but for some unlucky few, a fishy odor always remain. This is none other than Fish Odor Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder also known as Trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Learn more about the biology behind Fish Odor Syndrome, the FMO3 gene, cures and treatments.
COVID-19 Pandemic: Do you need to wear a face mask? How effective are face masks in protecting us from the spread of COVID-19? In this article, we evaluate the efficacy and importance of face masks amidst COVID-19 pandemic.
What is the difference between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea? In this lesson, we learn about sleep apnea, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and differentiate between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea. USMLE
Brain Bee Study Guide: Free resources and study guide notes for Brain Bee competition students: Chapter 9 Kinds of Research
Differences between autocrine, paracrine, juxtacrine, and endocrine signaling. Quick easy lesson on Autocrine vs Paracrine vs Endocrine vs Juxtacrine Signaling.
Biology Unit 2 Study Guide: Basic Building Blocks of Life. Protein, lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, properties of water, enzymes, organelles. With examples and answers to help make biomolecules easy to learn!
Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Tay-Sachs Disease vs Niemann-Pick DIsease: Similarities and differences for symptoms, causes, enzymes, biochemistry, inheritance, etc
Biology Unit 1 Study Guide: Ecology and Scientific Method, including Characteristics of Life, Biodiversity, Cycles of Matter, and Global Change. With examples and answers to help make ecology easy to learn!