Category: medicine

Circulatory System 101: Advantages and Disadvantages of Cardiac MRI versus Cardiac CT [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

Happy New Year! In this lesson, we explore the circulatory system and more of the the awesome heart! Topics include cardiac MRI versus cardiac CT in imaging of circulatory system diseases and patient care, types of cardiac MRI, and pros and cons of MRI versus CT.

How to Achieve Your New Year’s Resolutions and Goals

Happy New Year! We have all wanted something in our lifetime, and we have all probably experienced both the bitter taste of rejection and the sweet taste of getting what we want. Although many might believe that getting what you want is dependent on luck, there are certain things that separate high achievers. If you are to get what we want, you should set goals, and use strategies that allow you not only to influence people so you achieve what you want, but also get you closer to your wildest dreams.

Happy Holidays and Happy New Year! Moosmosis Global Health & Education

Happy Holidays and Happy New Year everyone! We wish you a happy, healthy, and successful new year. We are very thankful for everyone, each and every one of our readers and supporters. Thank you so much for joining in our journey of lifelong learning and supporting global health and education around the world. To this date, over 2,293,580 lifelong leaners from around the world have visited our open-access global education website, including you! Dedicated to global education and lifelong learning, Moosmosis is an international youth organization that promotes lifelong learning in the arts and sciences and aspires to close the gap of educational disparities through open-access education. By creating and publishing original free articles, lessons, and unique e-learning games in both the humanities and sciences, Moosmosis provides diverse learning tools, open to all lifelong learners around the world. Our Moosmosis site is run 100% by volunteers from around the world. Thank you again for your support everyone, and have a Happy Holidays and happy New Year! 😀 Feel free to also check out the incredible e-learning games and popular articles below made by our Moosmosis members and lifelong learners! We couldn’t have done this without the incredible kindness of all our supporters from around the world. Thank you so much again for your compassion and support for our Moosmosis’s Mission for Global Health & Education for lifelong learners around the world. Please subscribe and share! Happy Holidays and Happy New Year everyone!!

Happy Thanksgiving! Moosmosis Global Health & Education

Happy Thanksgiving everyone! We are very thankful for everyone, each and every one of our readers and supporters. Thank you so much for joining in our journey of lifelong learning and supporting global health and education around the world. To this date, over 2,270,000 lifelong leaners from around the world have visited our open-access global education website, including you! Dedicated to global education and lifelong learning, Moosmosis is an international youth organization that promotes lifelong learning in the arts and sciences and aspires to close the gap of educational disparities through open-access education. By creating and publishing original free lessons and unique e-learning games in both the humanities and sciences, Moosmosis provides diverse learning tools, open to all lifelong learners around the world. Our Moosmosis site is run 100% by volunteers from around the world. Thank you again for your support everyone, and have a Happy Thanksgiving! 😀 Feel free to also check out the incredible e-learning games and popular articles below made by our Moosmosis members and lifelong learners! We couldn’t have done this without the incredible kindness of all our supporters from around the world. Thank you so much again for your compassion and support for our Moosmosis’s Mission for Global Health & Education for lifelong learners around the world. Please subscribe and share! Happy Thanksgiving!!

The Art of Studying Smart

Most of the world tends to look down upon the idea of procrastination with a frown. She’s lazy. She’s not responsible. She doesn’t have a work ethic. My view of this concept is slightly different. I wish I could slip back into my elementary school days as a model student, but I’m barely learning yesterday’s content by the time tomorrow rolls around. My stress levels and recent academic performance, on the other hand, tell an entirely different story. Procrastination might not be for everyone—some people need rigid schedules for their personal sanity and success, and these individuals should be held in high regard. For the rest of us: if we learn how to properly procrastinate, we could have all the success and time in the world. In fact, there are three simple steps to embracing the art: always keeping the task in the back of your head, being able to self-discipline when it’s time to work, and knowing your personal capabilities and limits. 

Circulatory System 101: Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

Love is in the air, my friends! In this lesson, we explore the circulatory system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome heart! Topics include Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole.

Circulatory System: Chest Pain in Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI

In this article, we discuss Management for Coronary Artery Disease and Differentiating between Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI. We share a table for similarities and differences and flow chart for management of coronary artery disease. We cover stress tests and medications for coronary artery disease. Enjoy!

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuronal Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Mechanism of Action, and Neuroplasticity [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuronal Synapses, Structure of Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Neurotransmitter Mechanism of Action, Release, Removal, and Neuroplasticity.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Capacitance, & Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Axon Capacitance, Action Potential Patterns, and Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis .

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neurotransmitter Anatomy, Glutamate vs Acetylcholine vs Histamine vs Norepinephrine vs Dopamine vs Serotonin, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include neurotransmitter anatomy, glutamate, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Anatomy, Cerebrum vs Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Subcortical Cortex, Cerebral Cortex [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the nervous system anatomy, cerebellum, brain stem, subcortical cortex, cerebral cortex, and cerebrum. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Autonomic Nervous System, Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous System, Gray and White Matter, Upper Motor Neurons, and Somatosensory Tract [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system, gray and white matter, upper motor neurons, and somatosensory tract.

The Magic of Music: History, Cognitive Boost, and Music in Medicine

There is some universal beauty in the harmonies and melodies that dance their way to an ear in weaving sound waves. Music has been an integral part of everyday life since the glorious sounds of 500 BCE Ancient Greece and Rome. In the last few decades, the industry has grown to encompass over a thousand different genres and continues to expand and evolve alongside the world. Many recognize music as a reflection of their mood: upbeat to go along with a night out with friends, mellow to accompany the endless waterworks, or maybe rock and roll to fit a certain rebellious phase of life. However, behind the curtain, music can work all forms of magic on the mind. In fact, listening to music can increase cognitive performance, stimulate pain reduction, and promote stress relief.

Immunology 101: Stages of B-cell Development [Biology, MCAT, USMLE Medicine]

B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.

Gastrointestinal System 101: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers, LFTs, Types of Hepatitis, PSC vs PBC, Cholecystitis vs Cholangitis, Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis [Biology, MCAT, USMLE, Medicine]

In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include hepatobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, Crohn’s disease vs Ulcerative Colitis, and more.

Cell Biology 101 – Function and Biogenesis of Cellular Membranes: The Endoplasmic Reticulum [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

In this quick and easy lesson guide, learn about cell biology – the function and biogenesis of cellular membranes. Explain the metabolic and protein biosynthetic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum. Define key metabolic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Illustrate the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cotranslational translocation of proteins made on membrane bound polysomes and their co- and post-translational modifications. Explain the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in protein folding and discuss the fate of misfolded proteins.
  • Biology 101: Gel Electrophoresis

    In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.