Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
The heart’s function is to consistently move the blood in the body for the blood to spread nutrients to other body parts or to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients from other respective organs. The heartbeat is a way to understand the pace at which the blood is moving and how quick the heart is pumping itself. A heartbeat changes based on its environment. Running and high-intensity movement causes the heart to increase its number of beats whereas resting may lead to a lower heartbeat for the low amount activity that does not require as much oxygen. Depending on the difficulty and intensity of each activity, the heart accommodates via changing its pace to fit the body’s needs. In certain cases, however, a cardiac arrhythmia occurs and can lead to different cardiac issues that may or may not be harmless. Cardiac arrhythmia has affected millions of people in a multitude of forms. This article explains the basics of this condition such as heart block and bradycardia. The article is solely for educational purposes and not to diagnosis. What is a Cardiac Arrhythmia?
Cougar. Mountain Lion. Puma. What do these animals all have in common? Believe it or not, they are actually all names for the same animal! Because this feline spans such a large area, different areas call it different names. As you might think, this could get confusing if scientists try to discuss the same animal, so what do they do? They use taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the science and process of organizing organisms into categories and naming them. Every species of animal has a unique taxonomic, or scientific, name. A species is a group of organisms that reproduce among itself and produce offspring. The scientific name is used by scientists all over the world for ease of communication. After all, it is very important to be specific in science. For example, the scientific name of the cougar/mountain lion/puma is Puma concolor. The name cougar/mountain lion/puma refers to the animal’s common name. Organisms can have many common names used by the public, but when scientists are referring to them, they use the scientific name. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
Ever wondered how plants grow or survive? In this educational lesson, we learn all about plant hormones, including gibberellin, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, and abscisic acid.
You probably go to sleep most – if not all – nights. You probably have dreamt during many of these nights. And you might feel rested every time you go to sleep. Yet did you know about the complex mental processes that happen every time we go to sleep?
Circulatory System: Heart Structures and Functions; Blood flows through the heart in the following order: body –>inferior/superior vena cava –> right atrium –> tricuspid valve –> right ventricle –> pulmonary arteries –> lungs –> pulmonary veins –> left atrium –> mitral valve –> left ventricle –> aortic valve –> aorta –> body…
Common eye problems, diseases, and disorders – Quick and easy to learn diagram, definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases
In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the shoulder muscles responsible for abducting the shoulder, the anatomy, the degrees of arm abduction for each shoulder muscle, and the nerves that innervate the shoulder abduction muscles.
In this lesson, we explain about the biochemistry of glucose transporters GLUT and SGLT, their functions, and differences. Biochemistry, MCAT, and USMLE
What is the difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus? USMLE protein-energy malnutrition diseases; we explain the differences, including causes, symptoms, comparative medical charts.
Circulatory system – order of blood flow through the heart; Step by step Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart; Quick and easy to learn in 14 steps
Phosphorus Part 2: Health Risks and Disadvantages. Part 1 of this article described the uses and advantages of the element phosphorus. However, there are also various health risks that come with using phosphorus in our lives.
Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.
The muscular system allows us to move and do our daily tasks. It also provides heat, stability, and blood flow for our body. There are three main types of muscular tissue: cardiac muscle, which comprises the heart muscle, smooth muscle, which comprises the linings of organs, and skeletal muscle, which are the muscles that help our body move. This article will focus on the physiology of skeletal muscles.
In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about the kidney’s development and renal embryology in 3 stages. Mnemonics & Kidney Embryology Quiz Included!
The COVID-19 pandemic has people across the world self-quarantining, but what does that mean for the furry additions of our families? Are animals affected by the virus like we are?
You can probably find that phosphorus is the 15th chemical element if you look at a periodic table. You might also easily guess that it has the chemical symbol P. But what you may not know is that beyond these basics, there are many different applications of phosphorus that make it a significant part of our everyday lives.
Come learn about interesting factors about phosphorus with us!
Polar bears, Siberian tigers, our friendly neighborhood bees – what do they all have in common? That’s right. They’re all endangered species!
What is sometimes informally referred to as the endangered species list is actually called the Red List of Threatened Species.
In March 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump touted hydroxychloroquine as an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mr. Trump highlighted the drug cocktail of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as “one of the biggest game changers in the history of medicine.”1 But how effective is hydroxychloroquine in combating COVID-19 in actuality?
In this article, we learn about hydroxychloroquine a potential drug treatment for COVID-19 and evaluate its scientific efficacy.
Help, I smell like fish! Is this even possible?
Body odor is a fact of life. For many, this is a simple fix either through some deodorant or a quick shower, but for some unlucky few, a fishy odor always remain. This is none other than Fish Odor Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder also known as Trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Learn more about the biology behind Fish Odor Syndrome, the FMO3 gene, cures and treatments.
COVID-19 Pandemic: Do you need to wear a face mask? How effective are face masks in protecting us from the spread of COVID-19? In this article, we evaluate the efficacy and importance of face masks amidst COVID-19 pandemic.
What is the difference between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea? In this lesson, we learn about sleep apnea, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and differentiate between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea. USMLE
Pneumothorax also known as collapsed lung occurs when air is trapped in the pleural space. Trapped air causes a loss of negative pressure in the pleural cavity, reduces surface tension, and induces the lungs to collapse. There are 3 types of Pneumothorax or collapsed lungs: 1) Spontaneous 2) Traumatic, and 3) Tension Pneumothorax.
In this lesson, we learn the different types of pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and important terminology. USMLE
Brain Bee Study Guide: Free neuroscience resources and study guide notes for Brain Bee competition students: Chapter 4 Learning, Memory, and Language