Tag: Biology

World History: What Kind of Food Did the Aztecs Eat?

Located in Mexico, the Aztecs built a cultured civilization with unique kinds of food eaten daily for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. In this easy lesson, we explain what kinds of food the Aztecs ate every day, including specialty cuisines according to different social classes.

Circulatory System: Chest Pain in Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI

In this article, we discuss Management for Coronary Artery Disease and Differentiating between Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI. We share a table for similarities and differences and flow chart for management of coronary artery disease. We cover stress tests and medications for coronary artery disease. Enjoy!

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Biosignaling, Membrane Receptors, Signal Transduction, Ligand Gated Ion Channels vs G Protein Coupled Receptors vs Enzyme Linked Receptors

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuronal Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Mechanism of Action, and Neuroplasticity [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuronal Synapses, Structure of Synapses, Types of Neurotransmitters: Glutamate vs GABA vs Glycine vs Acetylcholine vs Catecholamine, Neurotransmitter Mechanism of Action, Release, Removal, and Neuroplasticity.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Capacitance, & Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include Neuron Resting Potential vs Graded Potential vs Action Potential, Axon Capacitance, Action Potential Patterns, and Demyelination Diseases: Guillain-Barre Syndrome vs Multiple Sclerosis .

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Types of Neural Cells, Structure and Function, Astrocytes vs Microglia vs Ependymal Cells vs Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the Early Methods vs Modern Ways of Studying the Brain, Brain Imaging – CT vs MRI vs EEG vs fMRI vs PET Scans. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Neurotransmitter Anatomy, Glutamate vs Acetylcholine vs Histamine vs Norepinephrine vs Dopamine vs Serotonin, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include neurotransmitter anatomy, glutamate, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Anatomy, Cerebrum vs Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Subcortical Cortex, Cerebral Cortex [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the nervous system anatomy, cerebellum, brain stem, subcortical cortex, cerebral cortex, and cerebrum. Check out our popular nervous system notes.

Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Autonomic Nervous System, Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous System, Gray and White Matter, Upper Motor Neurons, and Somatosensory Tract [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

In this lesson, we explore the nervous system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome brain and nerves! Topics include the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system, gray and white matter, upper motor neurons, and somatosensory tract.

Immunology 101: Stages of B-cell Development [Biology, MCAT, USMLE Medicine]

B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.

Top 15 Activities to do During Quarantine

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have been forced to quarantine themselves in their homes. Although countries are starting to open and people are exiting quarantine, social distancing is still common  and previously planned summer activities such as trips, internships and summer jobs have been postponed or cancelled. With summer having arrived, students will no longer be distracted by their classes. This raises the question, what can we do over a quarantined summer?

Gastrointestinal System 101: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers, LFTs, Types of Hepatitis, PSC vs PBC, Cholecystitis vs Cholangitis, Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis [Biology, MCAT, USMLE, Medicine]

In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include hepatobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, Crohn’s disease vs Ulcerative Colitis, and more.

Cell Biology 101 – Function and Biogenesis of Cellular Membranes: The Endoplasmic Reticulum [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

In this quick and easy lesson guide, learn about cell biology – the function and biogenesis of cellular membranes. Explain the metabolic and protein biosynthetic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum. Define key metabolic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Illustrate the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cotranslational translocation of proteins made on membrane bound polysomes and their co- and post-translational modifications. Explain the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in protein folding and discuss the fate of misfolded proteins.
  • Biology 101: Gel Electrophoresis

    In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.

    Chemistry 101: At Home Awesome Chemistry Experiments

    Chemical reactions happen around us all the time. These reactions occur when we cook or bake and even in our bodies, like when we breathe. Everyday objects are able to react and cause incredible reactions. Here are some easy science experiments you can create using things you can find around the house. Make sure you act safely during the experiment and have fun!

    Digoxin: How does Digoxin treat heart failure? Mechanism of Action and Side Effects [USMLE, Biology, MCAT, Medicine]

    Digoxin is a drug that treats heart arrhythmias, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and heart failure. In this succinct educational lesson, we learn about how digoxin works in treating heart arrhythmias and heart failure, digoxin toxicity and common side effects, and treatment for digoxin toxicity. We also have a mini quiz at the end, so you can test your knowledge on the pharmacology of digoxin.

    Working out …for your brain? – The Neuroscience and Benefits of Playing An Instrument

    Whether it’s a violin or a harmonica, learning to play an instrument takes time and effort to “perfect.” Musicians put hours and hours of hard work to perform in concerts, participate in competitions, or even just practice for fun at home. It can be frustrating to play the same piece hundreds and hundreds of times, especially if you still can’t get one section down. However, all of these hours of practicing actually do more than just putting on a perfect performance or impressing your family; playing an instrument can help your physical and mental state. 

    Immunology: Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis – NSAIDs vs DMARDs vs Glucocorticoids [Biology, Medicine, MCAT, USMLE]

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the joints of hands, feet, knees, etc. In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the standard medical treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the USMLE immunology level, including DMARDS (synthetics and biologics), NSAIDS, and glucocorticoids.

    Central Chemoreceptor vs Peripheral Chemoreceptor in Respiration [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

    There are two types of chemoreceptors that help control and regulate our respiratory rate: 1) central chemoreceptors and 2) peripheral chemoreceptors. Both central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors send signals to the main respiratory center in the brain that unconsciously tells our bodies to increase or reduce pulmonary ventilation. In this lesson, we describe the differences and similarities of central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors for the pulmonary system.

    Say… Cheese! A Look Into Fermentation – History and Making of Cheese

    From sour, sweet, and savory, cheese is a delicacy that connects people of all ages. It’s in hamburgers, pizza, salads, spaghetti, and desserts. Many of the world’s most popular dishes contain cheese, a food item that has been around humans for a long time. In this article, you will learn the incredible science that makes cheese possible.  Although the exact origins of cheese are unknown, it is thought that cheese originated when humans first began domesticating milk-producing animals like cows and goats. In fact, there is a legend that the first person to discover cheese was a merchant who found his milk curdled inside his container made of a sheep’s stomach. To his surprise, the curdled milk had a unique flavor that quenched his hunger. Cheesemaking is also shown in the artwork of a number of ancient civilizations including the Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt. However, the cheeses that are popular today were not made until cheesemaking became widespread across European countries around 500 years ago and then came to America when Pilgrims brought cheesemaking techniques with them. Since then, the cheese industry boomed in America and as of 2017, Americans consumed an average of 37 pounds of cheese every year per person! 

    History 101: The Banana is Dead, Long Live the Banana

    Native to New Guinea, bananas prefer tropical climates and can be grown year round. In terms of produce, the biggest distinction is between bananas and plantains, both of which belong to the same genus (Musa) and come in a range of cultivars, or varieties. Bananas are generally eaten raw or as part of a dessert or baked good. Plantains are a staple crop, culinary distinct due to their higher starch content, predisposing them to being cooked and fried as part of meals or snacks.