Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
The heart’s function is to consistently move the blood in the body for the blood to spread nutrients to other body parts or to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients from other respective organs. The heartbeat is a way to understand the pace at which the blood is moving and how quick the heart is pumping itself. A heartbeat changes based on its environment. Running and high-intensity movement causes the heart to increase its number of beats whereas resting may lead to a lower heartbeat for the low amount activity that does not require as much oxygen. Depending on the difficulty and intensity of each activity, the heart accommodates via changing its pace to fit the body’s needs. In certain cases, however, a cardiac arrhythmia occurs and can lead to different cardiac issues that may or may not be harmless. Cardiac arrhythmia has affected millions of people in a multitude of forms. This article explains the basics of this condition such as heart block and bradycardia. The article is solely for educational purposes and not to diagnosis. What is a Cardiac Arrhythmia?
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
Every wondered what was the history of and use of Mummies? Look no further: Educational article on the use of mummies as medicine, the unique mummy business and sales throughout history.
When does a baby say its first words, Mama and Dada? When does a baby learn to stand up and walk on its own? Is it normal for an infant to develop stranger anxiety at 9 months? In this quick and easy-to-understand lesson, we review the infant developmental milestones at 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. This lesson includes high-yield USMLE quick take-home points, high yield summaries, and practice test questions/answers on infant developmental milestones.
Common eye problems, diseases, and disorders – Quick and easy to learn diagram, definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases
In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the shoulder muscles responsible for abducting the shoulder, the anatomy, the degrees of arm abduction for each shoulder muscle, and the nerves that innervate the shoulder abduction muscles.
In this lesson, we explain about the biochemistry of glucose transporters GLUT and SGLT, their functions, and differences. Biochemistry, MCAT, and USMLE
What is the difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus? USMLE protein-energy malnutrition diseases; we explain the differences, including causes, symptoms, comparative medical charts.
Circulatory system – order of blood flow through the heart; Step by step Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart; Quick and easy to learn in 14 steps
Phosphorus Part 2: Health Risks and Disadvantages. Part 1 of this article described the uses and advantages of the element phosphorus. However, there are also various health risks that come with using phosphorus in our lives.
Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.
Shorthand is the use of abbreviated spellings and or simplified symbols to record information in a quicker, more compact form. The opposite of this is longhand, which generally uses either block lettering or a cursive script. While it takes longer to fully write something out in longhand, all or most of those fluent in a given language will understand what is written down, as opposed to shorthand, which requires special training. In light of modern recording and word processing technologies, the decline in shorthand’s use seems inevitable, with newer inventions allowing those who only known longhand to reap the benefits of shorthand. And yet several shorthand systems thrive in a few niche industries. To fully appreciate shorthand and its resilience, one must go back to its origins.
In this quick, easy-to-understand lesson, we learn about the kidney’s development and renal embryology in 3 stages. Mnemonics & Kidney Embryology Quiz Included!
Mental illness has long remained a topic that many seem to be clueless about and one that has been stigmatized and stereotyped.
Learn about the truth about mental illness, the history of its treatment, and how we can help break the taboo about mental illness and promote mental health for ourselves and others.
You can probably find that phosphorus is the 15th chemical element if you look at a periodic table. You might also easily guess that it has the chemical symbol P. But what you may not know is that beyond these basics, there are many different applications of phosphorus that make it a significant part of our everyday lives.
Come learn about interesting factors about phosphorus with us!
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been forced to adapt to a completely new lifestyle in quarantine. However, another species – our friendly neighborhood citrus trees that have gone mainly unnoticed – has been experiencing this same dilemma for decades but for a completely different disease: The Citrus Greening Disease.
As everyday life changes drastically as a result of COVID-19, it’s important to maintain a regular schedule to keep mental and physical health in check. One easy way to stay healthy is to exercise.
Fun Fitness during COVID: Indoor and Outdoor Exercises
Does being alone at home make a person go insane? After weeks of social distancing because of COVID-19, people locked up in their homes may be getting bored and restless. Attending school, going out to eat, hanging out with friends — parts of their lives that are normal — are no longer possible. What is the science behind the human’s social brain, and what does isolation do to the brain?
In March 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump touted hydroxychloroquine as an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mr. Trump highlighted the drug cocktail of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as “one of the biggest game changers in the history of medicine.”1 But how effective is hydroxychloroquine in combating COVID-19 in actuality?
In this article, we learn about hydroxychloroquine a potential drug treatment for COVID-19 and evaluate its scientific efficacy.
Help, I smell like fish! Is this even possible?
Body odor is a fact of life. For many, this is a simple fix either through some deodorant or a quick shower, but for some unlucky few, a fishy odor always remain. This is none other than Fish Odor Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder also known as Trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Learn more about the biology behind Fish Odor Syndrome, the FMO3 gene, cures and treatments.
COVID-19 Pandemic: Do you need to wear a face mask? How effective are face masks in protecting us from the spread of COVID-19? In this article, we evaluate the efficacy and importance of face masks amidst COVID-19 pandemic.
What is the difference between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea? In this lesson, we learn about sleep apnea, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and differentiate between central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea. USMLE
Pneumothorax also known as collapsed lung occurs when air is trapped in the pleural space. Trapped air causes a loss of negative pressure in the pleural cavity, reduces surface tension, and induces the lungs to collapse. There are 3 types of Pneumothorax or collapsed lungs: 1) Spontaneous 2) Traumatic, and 3) Tension Pneumothorax.
In this lesson, we learn the different types of pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and important terminology. USMLE
A Global Epidemic: The Novel 2019 Coronavirus
On December 31st, 2019, Chinese officials informed the World Health Organization that a group of strange cases of pneumonia were detected in the city of Wuhan. The cause of the pneumonia was unknown, but a week later, Chinese health officials confirmed that the cases were associated with a novel coronavirus.
In this lesson, we learn about what is the coronavirus, how the coronavirus spreads, how deadly it is, and why COVID-19 matters for our public and global health.