Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the joints of hands, feet, knees, etc. In this quick and easy lesson, we explain the standard medical treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the USMLE immunology level, including DMARDS (synthetics and biologics), NSAIDS, and glucocorticoids.
Drugs for TB: What drugs treat tuberculosis TB? In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the main drugs -rifamycin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin – that treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis or TB and provide study aid mnemonics to aid in your USMLE learning.
The “fight or flight” response is in response to impending danger. For example, the stress responses kicks in when seeing a snake slithering towards you or running away from a bear in the woods. Homeostasis is the normal equilibrium of body function, so stress can be induced by belief that homeostasis might be interrupted. In this guide, we share the effects of stress on the human body system, psychology, immune system, and long-term health effects of chronic stress.
In this lesson, we learn about the 3 shunts of fetal circulation: ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale of the fetal heart: functions, medical significance, when they close, medical complications, and remnant ligaments.
Circulatory System: Heart Structures and Functions; Blood flows through the heart in the following order: body –>inferior/superior vena cava –> right atrium –> tricuspid valve –> right ventricle –> pulmonary arteries –> lungs –> pulmonary veins –> left atrium –> mitral valve –> left ventricle –> aortic valve –> aorta –> body…
Intracellular Digestion vs Extracellular Digestion. What’s the Difference Between the Two Types of Digestion? In this article, we explore the definitions and difference between Intracellular and Extracellular Digestion.
Lovely, isn’t she? (Yes, the furry one above.) She’s Your 65-Million-Year-Old Mother. Through modern computer analysis and evolutionary data, Maureen O’Leary a researcher from Stony Brook University and her colleagues discovered the last known common ancestor of placentals (Scientific American). Modern placentals include animals such as whales, bats, […]
We explore natural selection in action with the evolution of Darwin’s Finches, Peter Grant and Rosemary Grant’s research on the Galapagos Islands
In this lesson, we explore the essential gene mutations on Drosophila flies during development and their embryology effects: gap genes, pair rule genes, and segment polarity genes.
Telling the difference between light microscopes, electron microscope, and indirect immunofluorescence (IMF).
Where does DNA transcription start and stop? In this lesson, we explain how DNA transcription works, the start and stop of transcription, and the 3 major transcription steps.
This lesson discusses the size scales relevant to cell biology.
What makes something living? What are the characteristics of living things? All life has a common origin, but how do we know? This lesson examines various characteristics that define life and the origin of life. Various famous scientists and their biological discoveries are also discussed.
The cell membrane is a mosaic and fluid structure. This lesson explains the factors that affect cell membrane fluidity, increase and decrease membrane fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer.