Earth has experienced at least five Ice Ages: the Huronian, the Cryogenian, the Andean-Saharan, the Karoo, and the Quaternary. The latest of these is the Quaternary Ice Age, which began 2.6 million years ago and is still ongoing. That might sound off given that the popular conception of an ice age is of a world blanketed in snow and roaming with wooly mammoths, but the scientific definition only requires that a substantial ice sheet be present on the Earth’s surface, and Antarctica fits the bill. While their causes vary, ice ages are typified by periods of sustained global cooling and glacial expansion. Going by this, the Little Ice Age qualifies, though it is also an ice age within an ice age, making it a sort of matryoshka doll climate event. The Little Ice Age is not the only lesser ice age, though it is the best known as it occurred the most recently and within recorded history. After having touched on similarities, our next logical step is to examine what makes the Little Ice Age different.
Daydreaming is a common human phenomenon, one that we all experience in our daily lives. Studies show that we actually spend around 47% of our waking time in the dream world. We utilize this important tool to think-out different scenarios, re-visit special times in our lives, imagine new ones, or even just to pass time. Daydreaming is vital to the human experience. But one may wonder, what happens when one daydreams a little too much?
Acid Deposition (commonly known as Acid Rain) means precipitation that has acidic components, i.e. an unusually low pH level (4.2~4.4). Acid rain is a term coined in 1852 by Robert Angus Smith, a Scottish scientist who conducted rainwater experiments in industrial regions throughout Scotland and England.
Water quenches thirst, is crucial when taking a bath, and is important when cooking. Yet despite the fact that it is all around us and used in our daily lives, there are many facts and health benefits about water that remain unknown to many people.
Petroleum (or oil) and natural gas are widely used sources of fuel. Around the world many transportation, energy, and heating infrastructures depend in large part on one or both of these hydrocarbon-rich fuels, petrochemical products. While in the past it may have seemed inconceivable that people would have to step away from fossil fuels, climate change increasingly necessitates greener alternatives. It is also hard to imagine life without plastics. For many applications, such as in healthcare, there may be no better materials. A future with zero plastic is neither warranted nor desirable, but the threats to various ecosystems are likely to force the development of greener and more sustainable materials.
Innate vs Adaptive Immunity: What are the differences between innate and adaptive immunity? The human body has two protective immunological systems against pathogens: the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. In this quick and easy lesson, we will explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ based on the type of components that are used to protect the human body. For example, the innate immunity consists of neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, complements, physical barriers. On the other hand, the adaptive immunity contains components such as T cells, B cells, and antibodies to protect us from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
Climate change affects the entirety of the earth’s surface, and nowhere more so than our oceans. While our seas cover about two-thirds of the earth’s surface they absorb over ninety percent of the additional heat attributable to global warming. Both land masses and bodies of water absorb and reflect solar radiation that rebounds off of the greenhouse gases trapped in our atmosphere, but the latter is generally more absorptive and holds on to heat longer due to differences in physical properties. This of course has led to increases in global seawater temperatures, which has and continues to endanger several aquatic species. This article will examine one of those species and go over human efforts to preserve it.
One way of looking at history is in terms of progress. Many historians and fans of the subject laud Rome for its advances in military organization, infrastructure, and civics. Similar adulation is often heaped upon the Renaissance for the strides made in philosophy, arts, and sciences during that period, which in turn set the stage for the Age of Enlightenment. But what of the time between shining antiquity and the rekindling that was the Renaissance? lternately called the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages, and the Medieval Ages, the time period from roughly the 5th century to the 15th century is usually framed in the West as its own era of history.
The novel COVID-19 is leaving astonishing traces of deaths and illnesses as it rapidly encroaches upon our everyday lives. Schools are closed. Unemployment is surging. People experience dreadful losses of their family and friends. Luckily, however, the exponential curve of COVID-19 seems to have flattened within the past few weeks for many of the countries, and some even seem to have downward-sloping trends. So, should we feel relieved and expect the curve to hit 0 soon?
The basics of rewilding (at least in North America) are the Three C’s: Cores, Corridors, and Carnivores. Rewilding was developed in the 1990’s as a new approach to ecological restoration. Proponents have characterized it as being active rather than reactive. What this means is that instead of viewing conservation as stemming a tide or becoming shepherds to ever-declining animal populations, rewilding is focused on restoring the equilibrium of ecological systems. This is accomplished through a variety of methods that are grouped together under the Three C’s.
Phosphorus Part 2: Health Risks and Disadvantages. Part 1 of this article described the uses and advantages of the element phosphorus. However, there are also various health risks that come with using phosphorus in our lives.
Vitamins and minerals both help our bodies work properly, and they aid with functions such as growth and development. So what is the difference between the two? Simply stated, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic. This means that vitamins come from living sources, like plants and animals, while minerals come from elsewhere, such as the earth. Vitamins tend to have more complex structures than minerals, and because of this, are more prone to degradation via heat or chemicals. Today, we will be focusing on vitamins.
The muscular system allows us to move and do our daily tasks. It also provides heat, stability, and blood flow for our body. There are three main types of muscular tissue: cardiac muscle, which comprises the heart muscle, smooth muscle, which comprises the linings of organs, and skeletal muscle, which are the muscles that help our body move. This article will focus on the physiology of skeletal muscles.
The coronavirus pandemic may seem like one of the worst things that could be happening to the world right now. And although that might be the case for us, the environment is finally getting the break from human activity that it’s been longing for. With businesses shut down, traveling banned, and everyone in lockdown, traffic and pollution have been significantly reduced and it’s had some notable effects on nature. So while you’re stuck being quarantined, here are some cool things happening around the world as a result.
Is my athletic active wear harming the environment? Learn more about athleisure’s impact on the environment and sustainability.
Polar bears, Siberian tigers, our friendly neighborhood bees – what do they all have in common? That’s right. They’re all endangered species!
What is sometimes informally referred to as the endangered species list is actually called the Red List of Threatened Species.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been forced to adapt to a completely new lifestyle in quarantine. However, another species – our friendly neighborhood citrus trees that have gone mainly unnoticed – has been experiencing this same dilemma for decades but for a completely different disease: The Citrus Greening Disease.
Staple crops are foods that shape the dietary foundations of one or more regions. Rice, wheat, and corn provide over half of the world population’s caloric intake. In this lesson, we learn about the history of wheat and its global impact.
How did flightless birds evolve? How did the evolution of the shrinking cod come to be? In this lesson, we learn about the evolution of the flightless birds, such as cormorants, and the evolution of the shrinking cod in our biology selection case studies.
Biology Unit 2 Study Guide: Basic Building Blocks of Life. Protein, lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, properties of water, enzymes, organelles. With examples and answers to help make biomolecules easy to learn!
To Build A Fire by Jack London: Analysis Essay – original literary analysis essay on To Build A Fire, including themes, characters, literary devices, and more
Biology Unit 1 Study Guide: Ecology and Scientific Method, including Characteristics of Life, Biodiversity, Cycles of Matter, and Global Change. With examples and answers to help make ecology easy to learn!
Are carbon emissions (carbon dioxide) good or bad for our environment? In this lesson, we will explore why carbon emissions are good and why carbon emissions are bad.
What makes something living? What are the characteristics of living things? All life has a common origin, but how do we know? This lesson examines various characteristics that define life and the origin of life. Various famous scientists and their biological discoveries are also discussed.