Nutrition: Glucose and Diabetes Type 1 vs. Type 2, Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins
Once delicious food has been digested, nutrients enter the bloodstream to reach all the cells in your body. Your cells need glucose all the time to keep producing ATP through the process of cellular respiration. The body is always trying to maintain a consistent sugar level in your blood – making sure it is not too high or low. Sugar levels in the blood are controlled by two hormones released by the pancreas.
After you eat and your blood sugar level is high, insulin is released to encourage uptake of glucose into your cells and to help convert glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver.
If you haven’t eaten in a while and blood sugar level is low, glucagon is released to convert glycogen to glucose for delivery to your cells.
Type 1 Diabetes vs Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a disorder where your body is no longer able to control its blood sugar levels. Complete the following chart on diabetes:
|Type I Diabetes||Type II Diabetes|
Pancreatic cells produce little or no insulin.
|Body cells have become insulin-resistant.|
Well-monitored diet and insulin shots.
|Pills to increase insulin sensitivity, well-monitored diet, regular exercise, weight loss.|
If not kept under control, what kind of health problems can diabetes lead to?
Adult blindness, erectile dysfunction, kidney failure, foot amputations, and increased risk of a heart attack.
NUTRITION: Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins
- What does the GI index measure?
- How quickly a food will raise your blood sugar level.
- What is the healthiest type of lipid? Why? (What is its affect on the body?)
- Mono-unsaturated fats. They help increase your body’s production of HDL (high density lipoproteins) which help remove cholesterol from your blood by incorporating it into the production of things like bile and hormones.
A chart on uses of different biomolecules by the body:
Strong cell membranes
Structure (bones, muscles, pigment)
Cell transport (protein channels)
Thanks for reading, and have a delicious day!
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