Nutrition: Glucose and Diabetes Type 1 vs. Type 2, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins

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Nutrition: Glucose and Diabetes Type 1 vs. Type 2, Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins

 

 Once delicious food has been digested, nutrients enter the bloodstream to reach all the cells in your body.  Your cells need glucose all the time to keep producing ATP through the process of cellular respiration.  The body is always trying to maintain a consistent sugar level in your blood – making sure it is not too high or low.  Sugar levels in the blood are controlled by two hormones released by the pancreas.

 

After you eat and your blood sugar level is high, insulin is released to encourage uptake of glucose into your cells and to help convert glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver.

 

If you haven’t eaten in a while and blood sugar level is low, glucagon is released to convert glycogen to glucose for delivery to your cells.

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Type 1 Diabetes vs Type 2 Diabetes 

Diabetes is a disorder where your body is no longer able to control its blood sugar levels.  Complete the following chart on diabetes:

 Type I DiabetesType II Diabetes
Problem

Pancreatic cells produce little or no insulin.

 

Body cells have become insulin-resistant.
Solution

Well-monitored diet and insulin shots.

 

Pills to increase insulin sensitivity, well-monitored diet, regular exercise, weight loss.

If not kept under control, what kind of health problems can diabetes lead to?

Adult blindness, erectile dysfunction, kidney failure, foot amputations, and increased risk of a heart attack.

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NUTRITION: Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins

  • What does the GI index measure?
    • How quickly a food will raise your blood sugar level.
  • What is the healthiest type of lipid?  Why?  (What is its affect on the body?)
    • Mono-unsaturated fats.  They help increase your body’s production of HDL (high density lipoproteins) which help remove cholesterol from your blood by incorporating it into the production of things like bile and hormones.

A chart on uses of different biomolecules by the body:

CarbohydratesLipidsProteins

Quick energy

Stored energy

 

Strong cell membranes

Hormones

Structure (bones, muscles, pigment)

Cell transport (protein channels)

Antibodies

Moving molecules

Enzymes

Thanks for reading, and have a delicious day! 

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