Tag: student

Calculus: Methods for Solving Limits with Explanations, Practice Questions, and Answers [AP Calculus, Calculus 101, Math]

In this calculus article, we will talk about the methods for actually solving or evaluating limits. There are practice questions included, labeled PRACTICE, and they are there for you to test your understanding of the different methods. The answers are at the very bottom. Enjoy!

Psychology 101: The Stanford Prison Experiment

What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Philip Zimbardo, a psychologist and a professor at Stanford University posed the same exact question in 1971, thereby leading to what is known as The Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE). The experiment was originally created to uncover the truth about human nature, a more in-depth look on what our true ambitions were, what really drove us. Zimbardo began by choosing 24 volunteers, making 12 of them “guards” and the other 12 “prisoners”.  They were taken to a prison simulation, a fabricated illusion to make the volunteers feel as if they were actually in prison. He began by  giving the guards ultimate power and left the prisoners vulnerable. This evidently led to a distinction of power between the two groups. 45 years later, people still ponder the  question that drove the experiment to its end. Was this study ethically right?  The Stanford Prison Experiment was not ethically right, it stripped volunteers of emotion temporarily, forcing them to turn against each other and was physically harmful to the majority of the participants. 

Immunology 101: Stages of B-cell Development [Biology, MCAT, USMLE Medicine]

B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.

Top 15 Activities to do During Quarantine

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have been forced to quarantine themselves in their homes. Although countries are starting to open and people are exiting quarantine, social distancing is still common  and previously planned summer activities such as trips, internships and summer jobs have been postponed or cancelled. With summer having arrived, students will no longer be distracted by their classes. This raises the question, what can we do over a quarantined summer?

Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include heptobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, durg-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and more.

Cell Biology 101 – Function and Biogenesis of Cellular Membranes: The Endoplasmic Reticulum [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

In this quick and easy lesson guide, learn about cell biology – the function and biogenesis of cellular membranes. Explain the metabolic and protein biosynthetic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum. Define key metabolic functions of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Illustrate the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cotranslational translocation of proteins made on membrane bound polysomes and their co- and post-translational modifications. Explain the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in protein folding and discuss the fate of misfolded proteins.
  • Biology 101: Gel Electrophoresis

    In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.

    Chemistry 101: At Home Awesome Chemistry Experiments

    Chemical reactions happen around us all the time. These reactions occur when we cook or bake and even in our bodies, like when we breathe. Everyday objects are able to react and cause incredible reactions. Here are some easy science experiments you can create using things you can find around the house. Make sure you act safely during the experiment and have fun!

    Calculus: Two Important Theorems – The Squeeze Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem

    Learn about two very cool theorems in calculus using limits and graphing! The squeeze theorem is a useful tool for analyzing the limit of a function at a certain point, often when other methods (such as factoring or multiplying by the conjugate) do not work. This theorem also has other names like the Sandwich Theorem or the Pinch Theorem, but it is most commonly called the Squeeze Theorem. The Intermediate Value Theorem, often abbreviated as IVT, deals with a single function unlike the Squeeze Theorem.

    History 101: What Are The 4 Causes of World War 1?

    An international conflict during the 1910’s, World War 1, was contributed by not one factor but numerous factors that led to its extensive atrocity. The aggressive rise and continuation of nationalism throughout countries greatly contributed to the start and four-year length of the war. In addition, the heightened race of militarism and its advanced trench warfare also contributed to the massive scale of the war, including the appalling losses of men as well as the elongated duration. Therefore, both the rise of nationalism, the patriotic feelings of countries’ people to fight, and the pursuit of militarism, advancements of armies, weaponry, and warfare style, played key roles in the contribution of the international conflict World War 1.

    Digoxin: How does Digoxin treat heart failure? Mechanism of Action and Side Effects [USMLE, Biology, MCAT, Medicine]

    Digoxin is a drug that treats heart arrhythmias, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and heart failure. In this succinct educational lesson, we learn about how digoxin works in treating heart arrhythmias and heart failure, digoxin toxicity and common side effects, and treatment for digoxin toxicity. We also have a mini quiz at the end, so you can test your knowledge on the pharmacology of digoxin.

    Working out …for your brain? – The Neuroscience and Benefits of Playing An Instrument

    Whether it’s a violin or a harmonica, learning to play an instrument takes time and effort to “perfect.” Musicians put hours and hours of hard work to perform in concerts, participate in competitions, or even just practice for fun at home. It can be frustrating to play the same piece hundreds and hundreds of times, especially if you still can’t get one section down. However, all of these hours of practicing actually do more than just putting on a perfect performance or impressing your family; playing an instrument can help your physical and mental state. 

    Central Chemoreceptor vs Peripheral Chemoreceptor in Respiration [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]

    There are two types of chemoreceptors that help control and regulate our respiratory rate: 1) central chemoreceptors and 2) peripheral chemoreceptors. Both central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors send signals to the main respiratory center in the brain that unconsciously tells our bodies to increase or reduce pulmonary ventilation. In this lesson, we describe the differences and similarities of central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors for the pulmonary system.

    Say… Cheese! A Look Into Fermentation – History and Making of Cheese

    From sour, sweet, and savory, cheese is a delicacy that connects people of all ages. It’s in hamburgers, pizza, salads, spaghetti, and desserts. Many of the world’s most popular dishes contain cheese, a food item that has been around humans for a long time. In this article, you will learn the incredible science that makes cheese possible.  Although the exact origins of cheese are unknown, it is thought that cheese originated when humans first began domesticating milk-producing animals like cows and goats. In fact, there is a legend that the first person to discover cheese was a merchant who found his milk curdled inside his container made of a sheep’s stomach. To his surprise, the curdled milk had a unique flavor that quenched his hunger. Cheesemaking is also shown in the artwork of a number of ancient civilizations including the Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt. However, the cheeses that are popular today were not made until cheesemaking became widespread across European countries around 500 years ago and then came to America when Pilgrims brought cheesemaking techniques with them. Since then, the cheese industry boomed in America and as of 2017, Americans consumed an average of 37 pounds of cheese every year per person! 

    Biology Unit 5 Study Guide: Evolution

    Biology Unit 5 Study Guide: Evolution. After his visit to the Galapagos Islands, Darwin came up with the theory of evolution.  This theory stated that organisms change over time.  The way that organisms change is through the process of natural selection. With examples, practice questions, and answers to help make evolution respiration easy to learn!

    The Egungun Festival

    Egungun is a form of ancestor worship where costumed dancers channel their deceased relatives as they parade through the streets. Family-oriented versions of this practice exist too, though the best known style of Egungun has to be the communal festival. The aims of both versions include remembrance, celebration, the earning of blessings, and lineal continuity through tradition.

    Alberto Santos-Dumont vs The Wright Brothers: Giants of Aviation

    Back in 2016, Rio de Janeiro hosted the Summer Olympics. The opening ceremony featured bossa nova, capoeira, and laser-lit choreography depicting key points in Brazil’s history. Among these theatric renditions was a curious biplane aviator that the Olympic announcer noted Brazilians claim to have beaten the Wright Brothers in their claim to fame. Are there any merits to this assertion? Has history snubbed this Brazilian inventor?

    Pushing Life’s Boundaries: Extremophiles Archaea

    Moderate and extreme are relative terms. What many assume to be the normal conditions for life do not apply equally across all species. Habitability can be thought of in terms of the Goldilocks principle. For example, to survive people need an environment that is not too cold and not too hot. Ranges like this exist for other factors as well, such as pressure. However, what is just right for us and most other creatures can be too much or too little for some. Animals that live on the sea floor provide an illustrative example in this regard. Where people need submersibles to maintain their equilibria, creatures that natural selection has adapted to thrive in the ocean’s depths are right at home. Cold, highly pressurized environments are the norm for them. When deep sea creatures are brought to the surface through accident or scientific curiosity they often either melt, as with glacial ice worms, or fatally decompress, like with blobfish. In this way the term extremophile is a relative one and is used to describe organisms that live in environments that are extreme to us. Beyond their novelty, extremophiles are important objects of study as they challenge and expand our notions of life and its necessities.

    Freddy Mamani’s New Andean Architecture

    Most artistic movements are named after the fact, often by critics, to group together the works of artists that share certain characteristics or that are in reaction to specific events and thus coincide thematically. Counter to this academic pattern is la nueva arquitectura andina (or the New Andean Architecture). The term was coined by the style’s creator: Freddy Mamani Silvestre, who goes by Freddy Mamani professionally.

    Margaret Chase Smith’s Speech of a Lifetime

    The American experiment was founded on the idea of a democracy where the people hold the ultimate power over the government. But when the government oversteps its power; when it threatens to endanger individual rights, it takes someone with true courage to stand up for the America public. Some of the most striking examples of blatant abuse of power in the last century occurred during the Cold War. From 1947 to 1991, the Capitalist United States (US) and the Communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) clashed in a series of escalating economic and political tensions. In the midst of this tumultuous period, US government officials became concerned that communist sympathizer would collude with Soviet spies and endanger national security. The most vocal advocate for the “Red Scare” was Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. McCarthy came under the national spotlight during his speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, when he claimed that 205 State Department employees were known communist infiltrators (Achter). Although he lacked definitive evidence to back his claim, McCarthy continued a long string of accusations against celebrities, politicians, and nearly anyone who disagreed with him. McCarthy’s campaign to “expose” communist infiltrators caused innocent Americans to lose their careers and reputations, and fueled McCarthy’s rise to power. This period of mass, unsubstantiated paranoia eventually became known as “McCarthyism” (Achter). Few dared to challenge him, for fear of becoming his next target; At least not until a woman by the name of Margaret Chase Smith stepped into the political fray.

    Biology Study Guide Book Just Published and on Sale! [Free Chapters]

    Hi Everyone! My friend just published a biology study guide book and it’s currently on sale! This book on biology study guides contains practice review questions and answers. Study Guides: Biology Unit Review Practice Questions and Answers . This interactive study guide of worksheets contains questions and answers to help you understand biology. Each unit contains information on key topics to review to further your understanding of biology. The units covered in this book include: ecology, biomolecules and cell biology, energy, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cell division, mitosis, meiosis, protein synthesis, genetics, and evolution. Award-winning author and teacher Dr. Sam J. Alex created this study guide while inspired by students and teachers. All proceeds donated! Hope you find this book helpful on your journey into the wonderful world of biology and beyond!