Eyes 101: Top 25 Most Common Eye Problems, Diseases, and Disorders

Common Eye Problems, Diseases, and Disorders

In this article, we explore the top 25 most common eye problems, diseases, and disorders, including diagrams,  definitions, and explanations for common eye diseases. The eye is a small but unique organ of the human body with the ability to visualize a lifetime of events.  

Our eyes are important organs of the human body and deliver the visual system. They provide us with vision in order to process visual details and images, detect and convert light into electrochemical impulses fired into neurons. In this article, we explore with the most common eye problems, diseases, and disorders that can affect our sight. 

Anatomy of the Eye: Labelled Diagram


When you look into the mirror, the most noticeable parts of the eye include the following: 

  • Iris: The iris is where people note the different eye colors we have. Brown, blue, green, black, hazel. 
  • Cornea: The cornea is a clear dome lying right over the iris. 
  • Pupil: The pupil is the black circular opening in the iris that dilates to let the light in, especially in a dark room, and constricts into pinpoint pupils when looking at a light source like the sun.  
  • Sclera: The sclera is the white part of our eyeballs. 
  • Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva is a tissue layer that covers the entire surface of our eyes, except for the cornea. 

Disorders and Diseases of Vision: Diplopia, Hyperopia, Myopia, Nyctalopia, Amblyopia, Presbyopia, Macular Degeneration



dimness of vision or partial loss of sight without detectable disease of the eye

Eyes from Avatar!

Eyelid Disorders and Diseases: Blepharitis, Blepharoptosis, Chalazion, Keratitis 


inflammation of the eyelids


drooping of the eyelid

A starry supernova in that eye!

Cornea Disorders and Diseases: Astigmatism, Corneal Abrasion, Refractive Disorder, Xerophthalmia 


irregular focusing of light rays caused by a nonspheroid cornea

Just look at those eyes! Can’t resist them, he’s going to be a charmer when he grows up!

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