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Pathoma: Chapter 1. Cell Adaption & Injury – Medical School Pathology Summary, Notes, Practice Test Questions and Answers
In this easy-to-understand lesson, we summarize important notes from Pathoma’s Chapter 1. Cell Adaption and Injury. This lesson also includes main summary, note points, practice exam/test questions, and answers for fellow medical school students learning pathology. Happy learning!
Medical School Anatomy: Practice Exam Questions & Answers on Inguinal Anatomy, Inguinal Rings, and Inguinal Hernias
Learning anatomy in medical school is hard, but we can make it easy. Presenting free practice test and practice exam questions and answers for Medical Anatomy. Test your knowledge on medical school anatomy with our free, open-access practice tests.
Circulatory System: Chest Pain in Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI
In this article, we discuss Management for Coronary Artery Disease and Differentiating between Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI. We share a table for similarities and differences and flow chart for management of coronary artery disease. We cover stress tests and medications for coronary artery disease. Enjoy!
Anemia Study Guide Notes: Vocabulary, Types of Anemia, Heme Breakdown, and Anemia of Chronic Disease [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]
In this study guide, we review anemia, types of anemia, formulas, vocabulary, heme breakdown, and anemia of chronic diseases.
B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.
Reproductive System: Medical Anatomy and Histology of Male vs Female Reproductive Organs [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]
In this quick and easy lesson, explore the histology of key reproductive system organs in females and males. Female Reproductive System: Histology and Organs. Male Reproductive System: Histology and Organs. Medicine. Medical School.
Gastrointestinal System 101: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers, LFTs, Types of Hepatitis, PSC vs PBC, Cholecystitis vs Cholangitis, Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis [Biology, MCAT, USMLE, Medicine]
In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include hepatobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, Crohn’s disease vs Ulcerative Colitis, and more.
In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.
In this lesson, we explain the differences between transference and countertransference in clinical psychiatry, 3 types of transference in therapy, and included USMLE practice question.