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Pathoma: Chapter 1. Cell Adaption & Injury – Medical School Pathology Summary, Notes, Practice Test Questions and Answers

In this easy-to-understand lesson, we summarize important notes from Pathoma’s Chapter 1. Cell Adaption and Injury. This lesson also includes main summary, note points, practice exam/test questions, and answers for fellow medical school students learning pathology. Happy learning!

The Art of Studying Smart

Most of the world tends to look down upon the idea of procrastination with a frown. She’s lazy. She’s not responsible. She doesn’t have a work ethic. My view of this concept is slightly different. I wish I could slip back into my elementary school days as a model student, but I’m barely learning yesterday’s content by the time tomorrow rolls around. My stress levels and recent academic performance, on the other hand, tell an entirely different story. Procrastination might not be for everyone—some people need rigid schedules for their personal sanity and success, and these individuals should be held in high regard. For the rest of us: if we learn how to properly procrastinate, we could have all the success and time in the world. In fact, there are three simple steps to embracing the art: always keeping the task in the back of your head, being able to self-discipline when it’s time to work, and knowing your personal capabilities and limits. 

Circulatory System 101: Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

Love is in the air, my friends! In this lesson, we explore the circulatory system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome heart! Topics include Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole.

The Power of Music and its History

“Scientists have found that music stimulates more parts of the brain than any other human function.” These are the words of Elena Mannes in her book, The Power of Music. Music has had significant impacts on communities throughout history and evidently remains influential today through its cultural effects on society and scientific effects on the individual brain. 

Music has essentially existed since the beginning of history. Although extremely different from what comes to mind when thinking about music today, it has been representative of many different cultures, religions, societies, and events throughout centuries. 

The history of music begins as early as Medieval times when music had emerged in society through the influence of the power of Roman Catholic churches. The Medieval period was the longest period of music in history and ran between the years 400 and 1400. This music was largely monophonic meaning there was a single melody to each piece of music. Gregorian chant, which would have a single line of vocal melody, was a very common type of music during this time which was heavily influenced by the Church. As the Medieval times evolved, monophonic music eventually turned into polyphonic music with multiple melodies. When the Catholic Church wanted to unify the Church music across the Western world, music notation was first created and documented so people could share and play the same music. Instruments that characterized the music of this era include wooden flutes and wooden string instruments including the first bowed instruments such as the Lyra.

Psychology 101: Emotions – Why Do We Feel the Way We Do? James-Lange Theory vs Cannon Bard Theory vs Two-Factor Theory

When we are met with sudden bursts of emotions, what comes first: the physical or mental reaction? 

Since the inception of psychology, emotions have turned into an interesting chicken or the egg phenomena. When good things happen, we smile, but does smiling make us happier? 

In the world of psychology and motor neurons, these questions remain unanswered, but countless theories have arisen to explain this almost unexplainable human characteristic. These theories have tried to distinguish the specific firing point within our bodies regarding these emotions, but all of them lack an explanation broad enough that can effectively describe such a diverse human race. 

Emotions are a complex mixture of our physical, cognitive, and expressive behavior, but to what extent do each of these matter? Of course, when good, positive things happen to us, we feel a gut-reaction, whether that be smiling or laughing. All of these reactions happen both beneath our skin and within our neurons while also being presented outward and physically.

Gastrointestinal System 101: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers, LFTs, Types of Hepatitis, PSC vs PBC, Cholecystitis vs Cholangitis, Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis [Biology, MCAT, USMLE, Medicine]

In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include hepatobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, Crohn’s disease vs Ulcerative Colitis, and more.