Tag: doctor

Happy Thanksgiving! Moosmosis Global Health & Education

Happy Thanksgiving everyone! We are very thankful for everyone, each and every one of our readers and supporters. Thank you so much for joining in our journey of lifelong learning and supporting global health and education around the world. To this date, over 2,270,000 lifelong leaners from around the world have visited our open-access global education website, including you! Dedicated to global education and lifelong learning, Moosmosis is an international youth organization that promotes lifelong learning in the arts and sciences and aspires to close the gap of educational disparities through open-access education. By creating and publishing original free lessons and unique e-learning games in both the humanities and sciences, Moosmosis provides diverse learning tools, open to all lifelong learners around the world. Our Moosmosis site is run 100% by volunteers from around the world. Thank you again for your support everyone, and have a Happy Thanksgiving! 😀 Feel free to also check out the incredible e-learning games and popular articles below made by our Moosmosis members and lifelong learners! We couldn’t have done this without the incredible kindness of all our supporters from around the world. Thank you so much again for your compassion and support for our Moosmosis’s Mission for Global Health & Education for lifelong learners around the world. Please subscribe and share! Happy Thanksgiving!!

The Art of Studying Smart

Most of the world tends to look down upon the idea of procrastination with a frown. She’s lazy. She’s not responsible. She doesn’t have a work ethic. My view of this concept is slightly different. I wish I could slip back into my elementary school days as a model student, but I’m barely learning yesterday’s content by the time tomorrow rolls around. My stress levels and recent academic performance, on the other hand, tell an entirely different story. Procrastination might not be for everyone—some people need rigid schedules for their personal sanity and success, and these individuals should be held in high regard. For the rest of us: if we learn how to properly procrastinate, we could have all the success and time in the world. In fact, there are three simple steps to embracing the art: always keeping the task in the back of your head, being able to self-discipline when it’s time to work, and knowing your personal capabilities and limits. 

Circulatory System 101: Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole [MCAT, USMLE, Biology, Medicine]

Love is in the air, my friends! In this lesson, we explore the circulatory system and share notes as part of the study guide series. We will explore the awesome heart! Topics include Systemic vs Pulmonary Flow, Heart Blood Flow Steps, Endocardium vs Myocardium vs Pericardium, and Systole vs Diastole.

Psychology 101: Emotions – Why Do We Feel the Way We Do? James-Lange Theory vs Cannon Bard Theory vs Two-Factor Theory

When we are met with sudden bursts of emotions, what comes first: the physical or mental reaction? 

Since the inception of psychology, emotions have turned into an interesting chicken or the egg phenomena. When good things happen, we smile, but does smiling make us happier? 

In the world of psychology and motor neurons, these questions remain unanswered, but countless theories have arisen to explain this almost unexplainable human characteristic. These theories have tried to distinguish the specific firing point within our bodies regarding these emotions, but all of them lack an explanation broad enough that can effectively describe such a diverse human race. 

Emotions are a complex mixture of our physical, cognitive, and expressive behavior, but to what extent do each of these matter? Of course, when good, positive things happen to us, we feel a gut-reaction, whether that be smiling or laughing. All of these reactions happen both beneath our skin and within our neurons while also being presented outward and physically.

Circulatory System: Chest Pain in Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI

In this article, we discuss Management for Coronary Artery Disease and Differentiating between Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease vs Stable Angina vs Unstable Angina vs NSTEMI vs STEMI. We share a table for similarities and differences and flow chart for management of coronary artery disease. We cover stress tests and medications for coronary artery disease. Enjoy!

Immunology 101: Stages of B-cell Development [Biology, MCAT, USMLE Medicine]

B-Cell Development Stages. stem cell –> early pro-B cell –> late pro-B cell –> large pre-B cell –> [1st checkpoint – selects for functional heavy chains] –> small pre-B cell –> [2nd checkpoint – select for functional light chains] –> Immature B cell (has surface IgM, no surface IgD). Somatic recombination is the process in which different individual gene segments of the H (heavy) chain combine with rearranged gene segments of the L (light) chain. The enzymes responsible for somatic recombination are the recombinase enzymes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) that recognize specific sequences (RSS) or recombination signal sequences. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only expressed in B or T lymphocytes. These specific sequences recognized by the RAG-1 or RAG-2 enzymes are either a 1) heptamer or 2) nonamer. The heptamer literally contains 7 nucleotides, and the nonamer literally contains 9 nucleotides. There are typically 12 or 23 nucleotides in between the heptamer and nonamer to separate them.

Top 15 Activities to do During Quarantine

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have been forced to quarantine themselves in their homes. Although countries are starting to open and people are exiting quarantine, social distancing is still common  and previously planned summer activities such as trips, internships and summer jobs have been postponed or cancelled. With summer having arrived, students will no longer be distracted by their classes. This raises the question, what can we do over a quarantined summer?

Gastrointestinal System 101: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers, LFTs, Types of Hepatitis, PSC vs PBC, Cholecystitis vs Cholangitis, Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis [Biology, MCAT, USMLE, Medicine]

In this quick and easy guide, learn about Gastrointestinal System: Pathophysiology of Diseases and Cancers [Biology, MCAT, USMLE]. Topics include hepatobiliary disease, understanding liver functions and cirrhosis, liver function tests, causes of liver injury, alcoholic hepatitis, NAFLD, NASH, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, PSC, PBC, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, Crohn’s disease vs Ulcerative Colitis, and more.

Biology 101: Gel Electrophoresis

In this educational lesson, we learn about the purpose of gel electrophoresis and how gel electrophoresis works. Gel electrophoresis in a method of separating DNA. It can be used to separate the size of DNA, RNA, and protein. You first start with a variety of different fragments of DNA all mixed together. The gel is a porous matrix like a sponge and separates the DNA based on two main things: 1) size and 2) charge. The charge on DNA is what makes it move through the gel. DNA is a negatively charged molecule, so it will move towards a positive charge.

The Collapsed Lung: Types of Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax also known as collapsed lung occurs when air is trapped in the pleural space. Trapped air causes a loss of negative pressure in the pleural cavity, reduces surface tension, and induces the lungs to collapse. There are 3 types of Pneumothorax or collapsed lungs: 1) Spontaneous 2) Traumatic, and 3) Tension Pneumothorax.

In this lesson, we learn the different types of pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and important terminology. USMLE